The Keys to Better Emergency Care

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Key Questions
  • What is cluster headache?
  • How are cluster headache and migraine differentiated?
  • For what other conditions is cluster headache often misdiagnosed?
  • How are episodic cluster headache and chronic cluster headache different?
  • What are cluster cycles?
  • What does timing of attacks reveal about the involvement of the hypothalamus in cluster headache and what implications does that have?
  • What associations exist between lifestyle factors — such as sleep and alcohol use — and cluster headache?
  • What health care provider should treat cluster headache?
  • What medications and therapies can be used acutely and preventively in cluster headache?
  • Can neuromodulation therapy be helpful in cluster headache management?
  • How are grassroots efforts exploring the use of psilocybin in cluster headache?
  • What research is in progress in cluster headache?
Interview Notes

Find more about Christopher Gottschalk, MD and his work here:

Treatments Mentioned
  • Beta blockers
  • CGRP monoclonal antibodies
  • CGRP oral treatments  (list in online speaker page and summary sheet but not Treatment Directory as these are gepants)
  • Depakote
  • Eptinezumab (Vyepti)
  • Lithium
  • Nasal sprays (list in online speaker page and summary sheet but not Treatment Directory)
  • Nerve blocks
  • Oxygen
  • Psilocybin
  • Steroids
  • Sumatriptan injections
  • Topamax
  • Vagal nerve stimulator (neuromodulation device)
  • Verapamil
  • Zolmitriptan nasal sprays

Christopher Gottschalk, MD, FAHS

Professor of Clinical Neurology; Director, Headache & Facial Pain Program
Yale Medicine

Christopher Gottschalk, MD, is the chief of the Yale School of Medicine Division of General Neurology, as well as an assistant professor of neurology. Dr. Gottschalk established the first headache medicine program at Yale, the Yale Headache and Facial Pain Center, where he continues to treat patients with chronic headaches and facial pain. In addition to his clinical work at Yale, Dr. Gottschalk is researching ways to optimize interventions to improve headache diagnosis and management across medical specialties. Recurring moderate to severe headaches are often misdiagnosed and poorly treated, which is a problem that Dr. Gottschalk would like to change.

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