Treatment Directory – Non-medicinal

Non Medicinal Migraine Treatments

This section includes a wide variety of Alternative, Complementary, Natural and Holistic treatments. They are categorized as Therapy, Behavioral Therapy, Physical Therapy, Product/Device, Procedure, Lifestyle and Vitamin/Supplement.

Although these are non-drug related treatments and generally non-prescription, they should be discussed with your doctor as part of your total treatment plan.

How to use this reference:

  • Non-Medicinal Treatment: The therapy/vitamin/lifestyle practice/device/procedure being used i.e. Acupuncture.
  • Format: The category of the treatment i.e. Acupuncture is listed as a ‘Therapy’
  • Free or Paid: Is the treatment free to perform or does it involve a cost? Acupuncture involves a cost to see an acupuncturist.
  • Preventive or Acute Treatment: ‘Acute’ treatments are taken at the onset of a migraine attack to help treat the symptoms of pain, nausea or other migraine related disability. ‘Preventive’ treatments help reduce or stop migraine attacks from occurring in the first place. Preventive treatments are often taken regularly (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly) whether or not you have a migraine attack.
  • Description: A short summary about the treatment benefits, risks and administration.

Treatments are listed in alphabetical order.

Search on any term by using the search field.  Sort on any column. Show more rows by increasing the display number.

Nonmedical TreatmentFormatAcute or Preventive TreatmentFree or PaidDescription
5- HTP (5 Hydroxytryptophan)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidSerotonin is a critical neuro-signaling chemical. A deficiency may result in chronic pain, sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and a propensity to overeat. People with migraine may have low serotonin levels, and associated disorders include depression, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other chronic pain syndromes. Serotonin can be increased naturally through behavioral health methods and/or dietary supplementation with pharmaceutical grade L-tryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP is a nonessential amino acid that contributes to increased production of serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and Beta-endorphins which all play a role in sleep, mood and pain regulation. 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) is directly converted to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in nerve cells and the liver before it can reach the brain. The result is a significant increase in levels of serotonin in the blood while brain levels of serotonin are only slightly increased because blood serotonin has trouble entering the brain. In Europe, 5-HTP is often prescribed with a Parkinson drug (carbidopa) to delay conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin until it reaches the brain. In this setting, adequate 5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier, increasing serotonin in the brain and central nervous system (CNS). Several publications have raised concern of a significant risk of heart valve disease from high levels of serotonin in the blood because of its direct effect on the heart. The supplement 5-HTP is made from a natural plant source (Griffonia simplicifolia).
AcupressurePhysical TherapyAcutePaidAcupressure has been practiced in Asia for thousands of years. By learning how to stimulate pressure points, you may be able to relieve minor or moderate symptoms of migraine head pain and gastrointestinal distress. Acupressure can be self-administered to specific pressure points using a deep, probing pressure with fingertip, knuckle or soft, pointed object, such as a pencil eraser. If you have not found relief after the first point, try the same points on the opposite side of the body.
AcupunctureProcedurePreventivePaidA Traditional Chinese Medicine technique that involves the insertion of very fine, solid needles into certain points of the body. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture helps headaches by encouraging the production the body’s natural painkillers called endorphins.
Alexander TechniqueTherapyPreventivePaidThe Alexander Technique is a system designed to retrain poor posture to ensure minimum effort and strain on the body. This can help prevent headaches that result from poor posture.
AromatherapyProduct/DevicePreventivePaidAromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils to help alter one’s mood, cognitive, psychological or physical wellbeing. Blends of plant oils, essential oils and other aromatic compounds are often utilised through topical application, massage inhalation or water immersion to stimulate a desired response.
Avoid Bright ScreensLifestylePreventiveFreeBright screens such as TVs, computer screens, phones, and other LED screens emit a particular spectrum of light that people with migraine may be sensitive to. Avoiding bright screens can be a way to reduce this visual trigger for those who are sensitive to bright lights.
Avoid Fluorescent LightingLifestylePreventiveFreeFluorescent lights emit a particular spectrum of light. People with migraine may be sensitive to the spectrum of light emitted by fluorescent lights.
Avoid Loud, Sustained NoiseLifestylePreventiveFreeLoud noise, constant noise, piercing, or ringing sounds are migraine triggers for some, and may worsen a person’s migraine condition for those who are vulnerable.
Avoid Odors/SmokeLifestylePreventiveFreeStrong odors, incense, perfume, deodorants, chemical smells, cleaning products, cigarette smoke, air pollution, vehicle exhaust, and other pungent or unnatural scents are known to be migraine triggers for some. Exposure may trigger an attack or worsen an attack in progress.
Avoid Processed FoodsLifestylePreventiveFreeProcessed foods often contain artificial ingredients and preservatives that can contribute towards migraines. These include MSG, Soy, Sulfates/Sulfites, Nitrates, Nitrites, and Gluten amongst others. See Dietary Changes for more trigger ingredients and foods.
AyurvedaTherapyPreventiveFreeAyurveda is an ancient Indian practice that involves a variety of treatments including yoga, massage, acupuncture, diet, and herbal medicine to encourage health and wellbeing. Ayurveda names three elemental substances, the doshas (called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha), and states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease.
BarometerProductPreventivePaidBarometric pressure changes might affect the pressure in the brain or the way the brain blocks pain, though it’s not well understood at this stage. However, a barometer can help people with migraine who are sensitive to pressure changes to better anticipate this trigger and avoid other controllable triggers (e.g. food, stress) during risky weather.
BiofeedbackBehavioral TherapyPreventivePaidBiofeedback is a technique that teaches people how to control certain body functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and spasms in the arteries supplying the brain with the help of a sensory device. Once skills are learned, they can be practiced anywhere.
Black CohoshTablets/Liquid extractPreventivePaidBlack cohosh (Actaea racemosa) is a herb sometimes used to treat perimenopause and menopause symptoms. It is native to North America, and its roots and rhizomes, are made up of glycosides (sugar compounds), isoferulic acids (anti-inflammatory substances), and phytoestrogens (plant-based estrogens). Warning: the wrong variety can lead to liver toxicity symptoms.
Blood Test - Food Sensitivities/Nutrition OtherPreventivePaidA food allergy blood test may offer clues to which foods the body is reacting to, as these foods may be affecting an individual’s health and migraines. A food allergy blood test can also determine if supplementation is necessary, by seeing if magnesium or vitamin D are deficient, for example.
Blood Test – Genetic dysfunction OtherPreventivePaidTesting for genetic dysfunctions can help uncover potential causes that may be provoking migraine attacks. For example an MTHFR and homocysteine blood test can indicate a deficiency in the processing of folate and require a specific treatment that may lead to reduced migraine.
Bowen TherapyPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidBowen therapy is a holistic remedial body technique that works on the soft connective tissue of the body. It is used to treat musculoskeletal or related neurological issues including acute sports injuries and chronic or organic conditions. Practitioners claim it is a gentle, relaxing method that does not use forceful manipulation.
Breathing Relaxation TechniquesTherapy PreventiveFreeDeep breathing is a simple way to reduce stress and relax. For example, taking 3 or 10 deep, slow breaths can help reduce anxiety and control stress. Also, left nostril breathing is a technique used in yoga that helps to control anxiety.
ButterburVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidButterbur is an herbal supplement that has been reported to be effective in reducing the frequency and severity of migraines in some people with migraine. Caution should be exercised with Butterbur as it contains components called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA’s) that are toxic to the liver and may cause cancer. The concentrations of this toxin vary depending on which part of the plant is harvested and where the plant is grown. Getting butterbur from a reputable source is important. The brand name Petadolex is regarded as one of the most pure and PA-free. The long-term health effects of butterbur have not been studied.
CaffeineVitamin/SupplementAcutePaidCaffeine is a very common stimulant that increases alertness, decreases fatigue, and improves muscle coordination. It is often found in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks. Caffeine is addictive. It is quickly absorbed by the body and moves rapidly to the brain. If used in excess, caffeine can be overstimulating and cause anxiety and sleep problems. Caffeine can help the body absorb some medications faster. Some sources suggest it can assist pain relievers by up to 40 percent. Caffeine is a double-edged sword for people with migraine. Any change in caffeine levels can contribute to an attack in some people. Consuming too much, too little, or skipping a day may also be a migraine trigger for some.
CalciumVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidCalcium is essential for building and maintaining bone, and is required for the healthy functioning of the heart, muscles, blood and nerves.
CapsaicinVitamin/SupplementAcutePaidHot peppers (chilis) contain a substance known as capsaicin, a natural ingredient found in many topical pain-relief creams and ointments. Capsaicin has the ability to draw something called substance-P out of your nerves. Substance-P is a chemical messenger that carries a signal to the brain that is translated as pain. When you effectively block the messenger, you block the pain, too. Use caution, as contact with skin or eyes can be dangerous.
Cervical TractionProduct/DevicePreventivePaidAlso known as Neck Traction. This is a method to relieve neck pain by providing an opportunity for your neck muscles and pinched nerves to be released. Tension is placed on the head to pull it up and away from the neck, stretching muscles and ligaments around the vertebrae of the spine and expanding the space between the vertebrae. Also see Occipital Lift Technique.
Chinese Herbal MedicineVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidChinese herbal medicine is part of the ancient Chinese practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Chinese herbal medicine takes a holistic approach to understanding the body’s normal function and disease processes, and focuses on prevention. Herbs are prescribed to restore balance to the opposing forces of energy, Yin and Yang. A Chinese herbal practitioner prescribes a specific Chinese herbal formula designed to match and treat your health problems.
ChiropractorPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidChiropractors seek to relieve headache disorders based on the diagnosis and manipulative treatment of misalignments of the joints, particularly those of the spinal column. Manual techniques such as the realignment may benefit corresponding nerves, muscles, or organs. Some medical doctors warn against allowing manipulation of the neck, which can result in a stroke.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)/UbiquinolVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidCoQ10 is essential for the proper functioning of cells inside the body. CoQ10 can help minimise damage to cells caused by the environment and other factors. There haven’t been many high quality trials but preliminary findings support the use of CoQ10 in migraine treatment. A more concentrated form is known as Ubiquinol. Sources of CoQ10 can be found as a vitamin supplement or in soybean oil, canola oil, chicken, herring, mackerel, beef, roasted peanuts, sesame seeds, pistachio nuts, broccoli, cauliflower, orange, strawberries, and eggs.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)Behavioral TherapyPreventivePaidCognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that helps people to change unhelpful or unhealthy thinking habits, feelings, and behaviors. CBT may be used to treat problems including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, uncontrollable anger, substance abuse, eating disorders, and other problems. There is scientific evidence that supports the use of CBT for migraine.
Cooling Gel SheetProduct/DeviceAcutePaidApplying cold items or ice packs to the head helps promote circulation and reduces the inflammation in the head caused by migraine.
Creative TherapyBehavioral TherapyPreventiveFreeCreative therapy includes a variety of hands-on artistic activities that slow down your mind, increase your concentration, and help you feel more present. This art-induced meditative state comes with many proven health benefits for pain relief, and less anxiety and depression. Forms include music therapy, dance/movement therapy, visual art therapy and expressive writing.
D-Ribose (Beta-D-ribofuranose)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidD-Ribose is a type of sugar that is produced by the body which can be used as a supplement. It’s often used to improve athletic performance and the ability to exercise by boosting muscle energy. It has also been used to help prevent cramping, pain, and stiffness after exercise in those with genetic disorders.
Daith PiercingProcedurePreventivePaidThe daith piercing punctures the upper lobe of the ear with an earring, and is said to correspond to an acupressure point within the ear that lines up with the digestive system. It is typically performed at a tattoo parlor. The procedure takes a long time to heal and runs the risk of infection. Experts believe it offers a temporary placebo effect for migraine relief and no lasting therapeutic value. There is currently no evidence supporting its use.
Dark, quiet roomLifestyleAcuteFreeWhen a migraine attack occurs, it’s been described as a malfunction where normal sensory inputs such as light, sound, or smell can cause pain. Removing yourself from these irritants can expedite your recovery, and many people find moderate to major relief in a dark, quiet room.
Detoxification (Detox)TherapyPreventivePaidA detox is a diet plan that requires you to follow a particular diet over a certain period of time in order to cleanse the body. It may also include (paid) herbal supplements or other methods, such as colonic irrigation, all of which aim to remove environmental and dietary toxins from the body.
Diet - 5:2 dietLifestylePreventiveFreeThe 5:2 diet is an intermittent fasting diet that has become popular after Dr Michael Mosley’s documentary on the benefits of intermittent fasting. This diet involves eating normally for five days out of a seven-day period and greatly restricting the amount of food eaten on the other two days. Preliminary studies have shown that intermittent fasting can fend off illnesses including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. It is not highly recommended for people with migraine, however, who typically respond better to a diet regime that promotes regular meals.
Diet - Elimination DietLifestylePreventiveFreeAn elimination diet is often conducted under the guidance of a doctor or nutritionist to establish which foods are triggering migraine attacks. An elimination diet requires an individual to strip back to a few safe foods for a several weeks to establish a baseline before gradually reintroducing foods one at a time, often several days apart. If a migraine attack occurs while a new food is being introduced, then it may be attributed to that food and consequently the food is removed from the diet.
Diet - Ketogenic Diet LifestylePreventiveFreeThis is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate, low-sugar diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control epilepsy in children. In small case studies migraines have been shown to improve while on a ketogenic diet. Further study is needed. 
Diet - Paleo DietLifestylePreventiveFreeThe Paleo diet, also known as the Caveman or Stone Age diet, mimics the hunter-gatherer diet of oura Paleolithic ancestors and promotes consumption habits which avoids grains, legumes and some dairy products in favor of the foods available to our ancestors during this period. Caution should be taken, as any diet that excludes entire food groups may be detrimental. Published studies for the diet are small, with too few participants to claim produce reputable scientific evidence.
Diet - Vegan DietLifestylePreventiveFreeVegetarians do not eat meat, fish, or poultry. Vegans, in addition to being vegetarian, do not use other animal products and by-products such as eggs, dairy products, honey, leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, and soaps derived from animal products. There is no evidence linked to migraine.
Diet - Vegetarian DietLifestylePreventiveFreeVegetarians do not eat meat, fish, or poultry. There is no evidence linked to migraine.
Diet – Gluten-FreeLifestylePreventiveFreeGluten has been linked to migraine and going gluten-free has been reported to help some people with migraine. Celiac disease occurs when the small intestine is hypersensitive to gluten, leading to difficulty in digesting food. Although people with migraine do not necessarily have Celiac disease, some patients may be gluten-sensitive. These patients’ test results often are negative for traditional reactions to gluten, but instead show signs of a different immune reaction. If you experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, diarrhoea, and constipation, as well as fatigue and mental “fog”, it may be worth trying a gluten-free diet. There is, however, no direct evidence linking this diet to migraine.
Dietary ChangesLifestylePreventiveFreeWhat you eat can play a very significant role in your migraines. There are a number of foods that are problematic for a large number of migraine sufferers. Understanding which foods trigger your migraine attacks is essential to successful migraine management. Common food triggers to be aware of are food additives such as nitrites and MSG (monosodium glutamate), food coloring, chocolate, aged cheese, red wine, beer, caffeine, citrus fruits, cured meats such as bacon, hot dogs, aspartame, and ice cream. If you are unsure, it may be worthwhile speaking with your doctor or seeing a dietician or nutritionist to manage your diet. They can also help determine if you have any food allergies that may be contributing to your migraine attacks.
Eliminate Cigarette SmokingLifestylePreventiveFreeQuitting smoking is a smart choice for your health. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals including 43 known cancer-causing (carcinogenic) compounds and 400 other toxins. Apart from the obvious health benefits, cigarette smoke is a trigger for some people with migraine and the chemical damage occurring to an individual’s health whilst smoking is likely to make existing health conditions worse.
Eliminating AlcoholLifestylePreventiveFreeAlcohol causes headaches even for people who don’t experience migraine. If you are susceptible to migraine and you drink alcohol, it is almost always a contributing factor. It is one of the least disputed food triggers for migraine because it is so common. About a third of migraine sufferers list alcohol as a trigger.
Eliminating Caffeine (e.g. Coffee, Tea, Sodas)LifestylePreventiveFreeWhile caffeine has its advantages (see Caffeine for detail) for many people with migraine the disadvantages outweigh the benefits. Consequently, a person with migraine may gradually wean down and eventually eliminate their caffeine consumption over time.
Eliminating ChocolateLifestylePreventiveFreeSome people with migraine list chocolate as a trigger food. Some neurologists say it is a migraine trigger because it contains the amino acid tyramine. The connection could also be that some people tend to crave chocolate during stress and hormonal changes, both of which may also trigger headaches.
Eliminating DairyLifestylePreventiveFreeDairy can be a migraine trigger for some. Much of the world's population is lactose intolerant and can't consume large amounts of dairy products.
Eliminating GlutenLifestylePreventiveFreeSee ‘Diet – Gluten Free’
Eliminating MSGLifestylePreventiveFreeMSG or monosodium glutamate is an amino acid used as a food preservative and flavour enhancer. It has been named as a common migraine trigger. It’s not limited to Chinese food and it has many aliases making it difficult to detect on packaged foods.
Eliminating Nitrates/NitritesLifestylePreventiveFreeNitrates are converted into nitrites once they are digested. Foods high in artificially added nitrates have been linked to migraine as well as a potentially a higher risk of cancer. Processed meats such as bacon, hot dogs, sausages, cured ham, cold cuts, and related products commonly have artificially added nitrates as a preservative.
Eliminating SoyLifestylePreventiveFreeSoy has been linked to migraine in some people. In addition to soy beans, soy products are often included in breads, crackers, cakes, rolls, processed cereals, canned soups, ice cream, frozen desserts, margarines, butters, some salad dressings, sauces, and breakfast bars, and other products, as well as soy sauce, soy lattes, tofu, and miso.
Eliminating Sulfates/SulfitesLifestylePreventiveFreeSulfates are found commonly in wine as a preservative, though some preservative-free wines are now available. Sulfates are thought to be a reason why wine is a significant migraine trigger. Sulphate is also used as a preservative in dried fruit and many dried-fruit products.
Eliminating TyramineLifestylePreventiveFreeTyramine has been recognized as a common migraine trigger, though experts are still trying to understand why. One explanation might be that tyramine can cause nerve cells in the brain to release a chemical called norepinephrine, and the norepinephrine may cause changes in the brain that lead to migraine. Tyramine is found in red or balsamic vinegar, aged cheeses, chocolate, smoked fish, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, avocado, red plums, bananas, citrus fruits, olives, processed meats, and some types of alcohol.
Epsom salt bathsProductAcute/PreventivePaidMagnesium sulfate is the scientific name for Epsom salt. The magnesium and sulfates in Epsom salt are apparently absorbed through the skin and may increase the magnesium levels in your body. Epsom salt baths are popular for softening and exfoliating skin, relaxation, drawing impurities out of skin and relieving migraine and cold or flu symptoms. Consult with your physician before taking Epsom salt baths if you are pregnant or have a medical condition.
Evening Primrose OilVitamin/SupplementAcutePaidEvening primrose oil contains “fatty acids” which are thought to help decrease inflammation related to conditions like arthritis or migraine. Evening primrose oil has been used for a range of disorders, including skin complaints such as eczema, psoriasis, and acne. It is also used for other conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, high cholesterol, and heart disease.
Exercise LifestylePreventiveFreeExercise helps with rest and relaxation and it also helps release stress, a common trigger for migraine. Most experts recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily to get the best results for stress reduction (, i.e. jogging, swimming, cycling etc). If you can find things you enjoy doing then you’re more likely to be consistent. Many people find yoga, Pilates, or t’ai chi to be a great option. Anything is better than nothing. If exercise triggers migraines, however, start small. If you’re outside, wear polarized sunglasses. Ensure that you’ve eaten enough and take a water bottle so that you don’t get dehydrated. Starting small and building upwards is a much more successful approach then trying to jump in without any warm up or preparation.
FeverfewVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidFeverfew is an herb with leaves containing natural anti-inflammatory qualities. It may prevent the release of blood-vessel dilating substances in the brain and may reduce inflammatory substances from developing, both of which can increase pain levels. It does provide relief for some sufferers and, given its low side effects, it is a relatively low risk option.
FolateVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidFolate is also known as folic acid or vitamin B9. This vitamin is important for cell growth and metabolism. Folate is the natural version found in foods, and folic acid is the man-made version found in supplements and added to foods. See Folic Acid for more details.
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidFolic acid is a type of B vitamin that is normally found in foods such as dried beans, peas, lentils, oranges, whole-wheat products, liver, asparagus, beets, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, and spinach. Folic acid helps your body produce and maintain new cells, and also helps prevent changes to DNA that may lead to cancer. As a medication, folic acid is used to treat folic acid deficiency and certain types of anemia (lack of red blood cells) caused by folic acid deficiency.
Forest bathingLifestylePreventiveFreeForest bathing is a Japanese technique that involves sitting in the forest and being surrounded by greenery. In Traditional Chinese Medicine this is one of the treatments for issues relating to the Wood element, which includes migraine.
Ginger (including ginger powder, natural ginger & supplements)Vitamin/SupplementAcute/PreventivePaidGinger is a commonly used cooking spice known for its antinausea, antidiarrhea, and digestion-aiding properties. Ginger is used for a migraine to alleviate the symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Ginger root can also be used in the treatment of migraine. Ginger contains more than 200 substances in its oils that help facilitate its many roles. For migraine, it is thought that ginger may block prostaglandins, which stimulate muscle contractions, and control inflammation and some hormones. GelStat, a supplement brand presented findings to the American Academy of Neurology in 2006 claimed that 1 in 5 people experienced complete relief after taking their Ginger and Feverfew multivitamin. Note: this study was not independently conducted.
GlucosamineVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidGlucosamine is a natural chemical compound found in the body. As a supplement, glucosamine is most often used to try to ease the joint pain caused by arthritis.
Heat creams, gels, balms & rubsProduct/DeviceAcutePaidHeat-producing creams, gels, and products in other formats are commonly used to help relieve muscle tension, tightness, minor aches, pains, or stiffness in the muscles or joints.
Heat Pack, Bean Bags, or Wheat packProduct/DeviceAcutePaidHeat stimulates your sensory receptors to block the transmission of pain signals to the brain and can result in pain relief. Heat helps reduce muscle tension, increases blood flow, and brings nutrients to the affected area faster.
Herbal teas (e.g. Dandelion, Chamomile, Ginger, Mint tea)Product/DevicePreventivePaidHerbal teas contain vitamins and nutrients. Drinking hot herbal tea can also be a calming and relaxing activity. It also helps keep up hydration levels.
HomeopathyTherapyPreventivePaidHomeopathy is a form of alternative medicine that claims to stimulate the body’s own healing response to disease using highly diluted preparations (potentizing). There are no effective homeopathic vaccines, and homeopathic treatments should not be used to replace conventional medical treatment of serious diseases or infections. The effectiveness of homeopathy has not been proven by medical science.
Hot showerLifestyleAcuteFreeLike heat packs, a hot shower can stimulate blood circulation and can be relaxing, which may help provide comfort from a variety of symptoms.
Hydration (Drinking water)LifestylePreventiveFreeDehydration is a common migraine trigger. Keeping water on hand throughout the day helps ensure you get the recommended 8 glasses per day.
HydrotherapyLifestyleAcuteFreeHydrotherapy involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment. Using ice packs on the head or splashing the face with cold water can help provide relief. Having hot and cold showers dilates then constricts blood vessels, which stimulates circulation. Exercise in water, such as water aerobics, is another form of hydrotherapy.
Hyperbaric Oxygen TherapyTherapyPreventivePaidHyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an immersive, enclosed chamber where 100 percent oxygen flows with no mask or cannulae. It does not require a prescription. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy hasn’t been shown to be as effective for migraine as it is for cluster headache. See Oxygen in Medical Treatments.
Hypnotherapy/Hypnosis TherapyPreventivePaidHypnosis is the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently is highly responsive to suggestion or direction. Its use in therapy to recover suppressed memories or to allow modification of behavior is controversial.
Ice therapy/ice packsProduct/DeviceAcuteFreeCold slows down blood flow to an injury, thereby reducing pain and swelling. Cold therapy slows circulation, reduces inflammation, muscle spasms, and pain. It is often found to be helpful for people wanting to take “the edge off” a migraine attack by applying ice to painful areas on the head. Wearable ice packs permit sleeping and movement while worn.
Improving postureLifestylePreventiveFreePoor posture can result in tightening muscles in the neck or scalp, which may lead to headache and migraines. Extended reading looking down at a mobile phone or hunching over a computer, laptop, or gaming console can lead to neck and back pain and can trigger an attack. Modern laptops encourage poor posture. Correcting postural issues may help relieve migraine and reduce the frequency of attacks.
Iron supplementsVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidIron is a mineral found naturally in foods as well as a vitamin supplement. Iron is required for growth, development, normal cellular functioning, and synthesis of some hormones and connective tissue.
Isoflavones (e.g. Promensil)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidIsoflavones are polyphenolic compounds that are capable of exerting estrogen-like effects. For this reason, they are classified as phytoestrogens – plant-derived compounds with estrogenic activity. Legumes, particularly soybeans, are the richest sources of isoflavones in the human diet.
KinesiologyPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidKinesiology is the study of body movement. Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a system using basic muscle testing to evaluate areas of dysfunction within the body. AK methodology is primarily concerned with neuromuscular function and how it relates to the regulation of structural, chemical and mental physiology. It uses the principle that the body is a self-maintaining, self-correcting mechanism.
Krill OilVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidKrill Oil capsules are a more highly concentrated form of Omega-3 fats than fish oil capsules, with similar benefits. The omega-3 fats EPA and DHA play an important role in emotional health, and deficiencies have been linked to mood disorders. Krill oil helps reduce inflammation, which causes pain. (See Omega-3).
L-methylfolate/Levomefolic acidVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidL-methylfolate is a particular type of folic acid supplement that provides the body with folate. It can assist in the management of low plasma or low red blood cell folate in patients.
Lavender oilProduct/DevicePreventivePaidLavender oil may help reduce nervous tension and pain, and enhance blood circulation. Its calming scent makes it a popular choice for anxiety issues. It is also used as a natural alternative to help with insomnia.
Magnesium (including variants i.e., citrate, glycinate)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidMagnesium is one of the most common minerals in the human body. It plays an important role in the production of protein, the transport and production of energy, normal muscle operation, nerve function, a steady heart rhythm, and supports a healthy immune system. During a migraine attack, low levels of magnesium have been shown in the brain. It’s thought that magnesium deficiency and migraines may be related since magnesium is required for proper nerve function. Sources of magnesium include legumes, nuts, whole grains, seeds, leafy green vegetables, soy products, bananas, dried apricots, avocados, and magnesium supplements. Dr Mark Hyman recommends a high dose of Magnesium citrate or glycinate at 300-600mg twice per day to help prevent attacks.
Magnetic acupressure braceletsDeviceAcute/PreventivePaidBands that apply pressure on the meridian point on the inside of the wrist that is said to be associated with nausea and motion sickness. Some studies suggest there is a therapeutic benefit to magnets in alleviating pain or other health concerns.
MagnotherapyTherapyPreventivePaidAlso known as magnet therapy or magnetic therapy. It is an alternative practice involving the use of static magnetic fields. Practitioners of magnotherapy claim that subjecting certain parts of the body to magnetostatic fields produced by permanent magnets has beneficial health effects. These physical and biological claims are unproven and no effects on health or healing have been established.
Manage StressLifestylePreventiveFreeStress in its many forms is one of the most significant factors for people with migraine. Stress can come from strong emotions, both negative and positive. But it can also descend into anxiety, panic attacks, and depression. Stress can easily creep up on you. You get used to it. It can feel familiar or even normal without any realization of the heavy toll it takes. Stress can be beneficial at a mild level, but beyond a certain point it starts causing major damage to your health, particularly in relation to migraine conditions.
MeditationBehavioral TherapyPreventiveFreeRecent research has shown very promising results for meditation, with all participants reporting less severe migraines as well as other benefits including reduced stress, less anxiety, better sleep, better general health, concentration, self awareness, and self control.
MelatoninVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidMelatonin acts on the receptors for many pain-relieving molecules in the brain (e.g. opioid receptors), leading to a decrease in pain sensations when melatonin levels are high. Melatonin supplements have been shown to lower pain intensity, and a clinical trial found that 3 mg of melatonin 30 minutes before bedtime helped to reduce the overall frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine headaches for the subjects in the study.
Menthol/MintProduct/DeviceAcutePaidPeppermint and menthol are numbing and calming, making them useful to soothe the overactive nervous system during a migraine attack. It can be inhaled, applied topically, or ingested. There’s growing evidence that menthol for migraine is just as effective as over-the-counter medications to treat an attack in the early stages.
Migraine BuddyProduct/DevicePreventiveFreeUsing a migraine app means being able to go to your doctor with proper documentation, and be able to answer questions such as, "How many migraine days do you have? How many types of treatments are you taking?" It also assists with identifying potential triggers, showing how migraines evolved with the treatment provided and the level of relief with those treatments.
Migraine Support FormulaVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidThis is a multivitamin product designed specifically for people with migraine, which combines several well-known vitamins and supplements to help relieve migraine. Vitamins included are Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Magnesium, Ginger, CoQ10, White Willow, Feverfew, Butterbur & Black Pepper.
MindfulnessMeditationAcute/PreventiveFreeA form of meditation based on a moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment. It means tuning into the present moment, paying attention to thoughts and feelings without judgment. Though it has its roots in Buddhist meditation, mindfulness has entered the mainstream in part through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn and his Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. Thousands of studies have documented the mental and physical benefits of MBSR, often used in pain reduction.
Myofascial releasePhysical TherapyPreventivePaidMyofascial release (or MFR) is a soft-tissue therapy for the treatment of skeletal muscle immobility and pain. This alternative medicine therapy aims to relax contracted muscles, improve blood and lymphatic circulation, and stimulate the stretch reflex in muscles.
NaturopathyTherapyPreventivePaidNaturopathy is a holistic approach to wellness based on the principle that the body has the inherent ability to heal itself. Using gentle therapeutic techniques, the body, mind, and emotions are supported during the healing process. Naturopathic medicine has been criticised for its lack of scientific evidence and conflicts with evidence-based medicine. For example, many naturopaths oppose vaccination.
Neck/Scalp MassagePhysical TherapyAcutePaidMassage involves working and acting on the body with pressure that is either manual or with mechanical aid. Peer-reviewed medical research has shown that massage can help with pain relief, anxiety, and depression, temporarily, and reduce blood pressure and heart rate.
Niacin (Vitamin B3)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidVitamin B3 helps release energy from carbohydrates, fats, and cholesterol while regulating blood sugar levels. Supplemental vitamin B3 causes the face and skin to flush, which is thought to help release the pressure of a migraine headache.
Occipital Lift Technique Physical TherapyAcutePaidTypically performed by a manual therapist, for example a physiotherapist or chiropractor, the occipital lift technique is where the therapist gently lifts the head away from the neck to allow for a release in tension and muscle relaxation. Practitioners believe that this practice may facilitate an increase in venous and lymphatic drainage from the skull, improve circulation, promote relaxation, and reduce blood pressure, all of which can relieve headaches.
Occlusal splint Product/DevicePreventivePaidA dentist prescribed mouthguard to protect teeth against clenching/grinding.
Omega-3Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidFish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, which are found mostly in fish but also in nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils. According to the American Heart Association, the Omega 3 in fish oil may reduce inflammation, aid in preventing blood clotting, improve blood pressure, and steady the heart rhythm. This may be useful in the reduction of migraine as it may reduce inflammation in the head. Sources of fish oil can be obtained from taking supplements or by eating fish including mackerel, tuna and salmon, amongst others.
OsteopathyPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidOsteopathy can be used to correct misalignments, which may trigger migraine attacks in some people.
Passage of timeLifestyleAcuteFreeWhile not technically considered a treatment, the passage of time is one of the most common tactics people with migraine employ to get over the worst part of their attacks. Resorting to “waiting it out” may be due to a lack of effective acute treatment, lack of knowledge about available treatments, or a lack of willingness to try new options with the help of a doctor.
Peppermint OilProduct/DevicePreventivePaidPeppermint oil is used for a variety of health conditions and can be taken orally in dietary supplements or topically as a skin cream or ointment. Some evidence suggests that peppermint oil may help relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and indigestion. Despite promising findings, there is no clear-cut evidence to support its use for other health conditions. Its use is not advisable for pregnant women.
Petadolex (Butterbur Extract)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidButterbur is an herbal supplement that has been reported to be effective in reducing the frequency and severity of migraine in some people with migraine. However, caution should be exercised with butterbur, as it contains components called pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are toxic to the liver and may cause cancer. The concentrations of this toxin vary depending on which part of the plant is harvested and where the plant is grown. Petadolex is a brand name of the vitamin producer whose makers claim that it doesn’t contain the harmful chemicals (PAs) within butterbur.
Physiotherapy (physical therapy)Physical TherapyPreventivePaidPhysical therapy or physiotherapy has the potential to release pressure, tension, strain, or injury that may lead to headaches. It is also a medically respected approach to treat physical ailments. People with migraine are known to have a number of trigger points in the shoulders, back, and neck. Releasing these areas may be particularly useful to help desensitize nerves which may be leading to migraines, particularly if you feel your migraine attacks are caused by neck issues.
PilatesLifestyle or Physical TherapyPreventivePaidPilates is a system of exercise with or without special apparatus, designed to improve physical strength, flexibility, and posture, and enhance mental awareness. The two primary types are Mat Pilates, which can be done for free or in a paid class; and Reformer Pilates, which requires the use of a specially designed table and is usually done with a paid instructor at a studio or physical therapy office.
Placebo responseNAAcute/PreventiveFreeOccurs when a person perceives an improvement (a nocebo response is a negative response or worsening) in symptoms or overall health after receiving a treatment or medication. This is from the psychological effect of receiving this treatment/medication, rather than the treatment/medication itself. Sometimes a sugar pill is enough to improve a person’s condition because of this effect. This is a powerful effect and could be even more so if harnessed into a treatment.
PrayerLifestylePreventiveFreePrayer can provide comfort, strength, and reassurance for those who practice it as part of their faith. It offers hope for those who are dealing with chronic pain and health issues.
ProbioticsVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidProbiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are good for your health, especially your digestive system. We usually think of bacteria as something that causes diseases, but your body is full of bacteria, both good and bad. Probiotics are often called "good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Increasing evidence considers the gut to be the “second brain,” and the gut-brain connection to be a significant factor in our wellbeing. Probiotics facilitate digestion so toxins do not build up in your gut.
ReflexologyPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidReflexology is an alternative medicine involving the application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.
Reiki Physical TherapyPreventivePaidReiki is a technique commonly called palm healing or hands-on-healing. Through the use of this technique, practitioners believe that they are transferring "universal energy" through the palms of the practitioner, which they believe encourages healing. It is based on “qi” which practitioners say is a universal life force, although there is no empirical evidence that this life force exists. Global cancer societies state that Reiki should not be a replacement for conventional treatment of diseases such as cancer, but that it may be used a supplement to standard medical treatment.
Relaxation techniquesBehavioral TherapyPreventiveFreeRelaxation techniques help control stress. They can also help you fall asleep faster. Common relaxation techniques include meditation, t’ai chi, massage, and deep breathing.
Remedial massagePhysical TherapyPreventivePaidRemedial massage can reduce headaches by relieving muscle tension throughout the body.
Rub/pressure templesLifestyleAcuteFreeRubbing or placing pressure on the temples can be a self-massage technique that is sometimes known as "the temple rub.” It’s simple to apply. Take deep breaths and rub your temples in gentle circles. Rubbing your temples in forward circles toward your ears and nose is generally the direction suggested. Do so for at least 10 circles and 10 deep breaths. It is claimed to help relieve headache and neck aches.
SaffronProduct/DevicePreventivePaidSaffron contains several plant-derived chemical compounds that are known to have been antioxidant, disease preventing, and health promoting. It is also an excellent source of vitamins and minerals including vitamin A, folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium, zinc and magnesium.
Salt Crystals/Salt Lamps Vitamin/SupplementAcutePaidNatural salts such as Himalayan salt contain numerous minerals and electrolytes. Taking 2 teaspoons mixed with lemon juice in a cup of water may help with a migraine attack. Salt lamps — which are thought to help purify the air by attracting moisture, humidity, and other airborne water molecules — may also be used.
SEEDSLifestylePreventiveFreeSEEDS stands for regular sleep, regular eating, regular exercise, drinking (staying well-hydrated and avoiding caffeine and alcohol), and stress reduction.
Self-acupressurePhysical TherapyAcute/PreventiveFreeAcupressure is an ancient practice of using the fingers to gradually press key healing points, which stimulate the body's natural self-curative abilities. Self-acupressure is the practice of pressing on these certain points yourself, rather than by an acupressure practitioner. There are many different points, but the Hoku Point (LI4), just behind the webbing between your thumb and index finger, is considered helpful in relieving headaches.
ShiatsuPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidShiatsu is a Japanese form of massage therapy that involves targeted hand pressure to certain body points to help restore the “energy balance” and promote relaxation.
SleepLifestyleAcute/PreventiveFreeSleep is a restorative brain function that affects many other aspects of bodily function. It is a vital and often neglected area for people with migraine. Sleep helps the body to heal itself. It powers down areas of the body so that recovery and repair can be performed. As a preventive measure, good sleep hygiene is a practice that ensures at least 7-8 hours per night on a consistent sleep/wake cycle. As an acute treatment, many people list sleep as one of the most effective acute treatments for migraine.
Sleeping maskTherapy ProductAcutePaidA sleeping mask is a simple tool used to cover the eyes to facilitate sleep in an area with distracting lights. If you are woken by light early in the morning, wearing a sleeping mask may facilitate more sleep after the sun has risen.
St. John’s WortVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidSt. John’s Wort is most commonly used for depression and conditions that sometimes go along with depression such as anxiety, tiredness, loss of appetite, and trouble sleeping. There is scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness for mild to moderate depression. The evidence for migraine is inconclusive.
StretchingLifestylePreventiveFreeStretching can be beneficial in relieving muscle tension that can lead to stiffness and pain. Neck exercises and shoulder shrugs can be helpful in keeping the area around the neck and head limber. It also helps settle trigger points. Next time you feel an oncoming attack, try a few gentle stretches and see if it helps alleviate the attack.
T’ai ChiLifestylePreventivePaidT’ai Chi is a form of traditional Chinese exercise that purports to improve health by changes in mental focus, breathing, coordination, and relaxation. The goal of t’ai chi is to “rebalance” the body's own healing capacity. It has been practiced in China for hundreds of years. A 15-week intervention of t’ai chi practice was effective in reducing headache impact and also effective in improving perceptions of some aspects of physical and mental health.
Tinted Migraine GlassesTherapy ProductPreventivePaidIf the glare from fluorescent lights or computer screens at school or work triggers your migraine attacks, migraine glasses fitted with an FL-41 tint may help. These are offered in indoor and outdoor tints.
TriphalaTablets/Powder/Liquid extract PreventivePaidTriphala means “three fruits”. Triphala is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). Triphala is most commonly known for its use as a gentle bowel tonic, being helpful in digestion, and assisting natural internal cleansing.
TurmericProduct/DevicePreventivePaidTurmeric contains curcumin, a substance with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
ValerianVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidValerian is an herb. The roots of this herb are used as a muscle relaxer. Outside of migraine treatment, valerian is most commonly used as a sleep aid. It can also be helpful for stress and anxiety. You can find valerian as a supplement as it is not easily found in food.
Vapor Inhaler Stick Therapy ProductAcutePaidOften using menthol as the active ingredient, inhaler sticks may be used to treat nasal congestion and help clear the sinuses, which may be adding pressure or contributing to a migraine attack.
Vestibular RehabilitationPhysical TherapyPreventivePaidFor people who experience severe dizziness or vertigo with migraine, vestibular rehabilitation offers an exercise-based program to help restore vestibular function and balance. Depending on the problems identified, three principal methods of exercise can be prescribed: 1) Habituation, 2) Gaze Stabilization, and/or 3) Balance Training.
Visceral Manipulation (Barral Institute)Physical TherapyPreventivePaidVisceral Manipulation is a gentle manual technique involving specific placement of soft manual forces to encourage the normal mobility, tone, and motion of the viscera (internal organs) and the connective tissue and ligaments that support each organ onto our skeleton. Specific techniques are used to evaluate how abnormal forces might be affecting your normal body functions or affecting your skeleton, soft tissues, and organs. Techniques are then used to gently assist releasing the tension lines and improve visceral mobility. These manipulations are believed to improve the functioning of individual organs, the systems the organs function within, and the structural integrity of the entire body. There is not conclusive evidence to support Visceral Manipulation.
Vision/Eye Therapy, Exercises or TrainingTherapyPreventivePaidEye exercises are thought to help improve vision and strengthen the muscles surrounding the eye that assist with normal function. Scientific evidence for eye exercise regimes are controversial with little evidence to support some of the claims made by practitioners. It is thought that with better vision comes less visual strain, which may contribute to migraine attacks.
Vitamin B2/RiboflavinVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidRiboflavin/vitamin B2 has being reported as useful in migraine treatment due to its role in helping heal and strengthen brain cells. This can be taken as a supplement or by consuming foods high in vitamin B such as milk, cheese, leafy vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, yeast, mushrooms, almonds, soybeans, wheat bran, salmon and sun-dried tomatoes.
Vitamin B6/PyridoxineVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidVitamin B6 is involved in the process of making serotonin and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that send signals to the brain. Vitamin B6 is also involved in the formation of a protein layer around the nerve cells called myelin. Deficiencies in this vitamin may cause health issues affecting the nerves, skin, and circulatory system. Mild deficiency of vitamin B6 is common. Sources of B6 include cereal grains, legumes, vegetables (carrots, spinach, peas, potatoes), milk, cheese, eggs, fish, liver, meat, and flour.
Vitamin B12/CobalaminVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidThe key role of vitamin B12 is the normal functioning of the brain, the nervous system, and the formation of blood. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. Vitamin B12 is found in most animal-derived foods including fish, shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs and milk.
Vitamin B complexVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidThis is a multivitamin that includes a range of B vitamins. Some of the benefits from a B complex multivitamin may include energy production, a healthy function of the nervous system and assisting in the conversion of food to energy.
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)Vitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidA significant correlation exists between low levels of blood serum cholecalciferol and higher rates of various cancers, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, heart disease, and diabetes. Supplementation may serve a preventive role for migraine.
Vitex Agnus-Castus Tablets/Liquid extractPreventivePaidVitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, or chasteberry is used to balance hormones.
Walking in NatureLifestylePreventiveFreeA recent Stanford study has demonstrated 30 minutes of walking in nature to be as effective as an SSRI antidepressant for mild or moderate depression. As it combines exercise and stress relief, it is certainly worth trying as part of a migraine prevention strategy.
Wearing SunglassesTherapy ProductPreventiveFreeGlare from the sun may contribute to migraine. Ensuring you have sunglasses with sufficient UV protection and polarization to reduce glare may provide significant relief. Wear polarized sunglasses even with the smallest amount of sunshine if you are sensitive to sunlight.
White WillowVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidWhite Willow Bark is an anti-inflammatory supplement that is thought to restrict prostaglandins and reduce pain.
YogaLifestylePreventiveFreeA form of exercise that involves stretching, maintaining poses, and breathing control to strengthen muscles and increase blood flow. It can promote calmness and is often used in combination with meditation and breathing exercises. Yoga can be done independently or in a class under the direction of an instructor with minimal equipment aside from a mat.
ZincVitamin/SupplementPreventivePaidZinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and biological reactions and it is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, thyroid function, and much more. Meat, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains offer relatively high levels of zinc. Low zinc levels have been associated with depression and diabetes amongst other conditions.

Treatment Directory – Medical

Treatments are listed in rows with a short description. This section includes Drugs, Devices and Procedures.

How to use this reference:

  • Generic name: The active ingredient in the medication i.e. Ibuprofen is the active ingredient in Advil.
  • Brand Name: The branded product that contains the active ingredient i.e. Advil is a branded product whose active ingredient is Ibuprofen.
  • Drug Class: The classification of the active ingredient i.e. Ibuprofen’s drug class is NSAID (non steroidal anti-inflammatory)
  • Rx: If a prescription is required to purchase a medication, it will be marked with ‘X’.
  • Format: This refers to the different formats available for a treatment i.e. tablets, capsules, injection, intranasal, topical, etc.
  • Preventive or Acute Treatment: Acute medications are taken at the onset of a migraine attack to help treat the symptoms of pain, nausea or other migraine-related disability. Preventive treatments help reduce or stop migraine attacks from occurring in the first place. Preventative treatments are often taken regularly (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly) whether or not you have a migraine attack.
  • Description: A short summary about what the treatment does.

Search on any term by using the search field.  Sort on any column. Show more rows by increasing the display number.

Generic Name (Active Ingredient List)Brand NamesDrug ClassRXFormatAcute or Preventive TreatmentDescription
Acetaminophen or ParacetamolLittle Fevers, Panadol, Tylenol and many othersAnalgesic (painkiller)Tablets, capsules, liquid, suppositoryAcuteAcetaminophen is also known as paracetamol, and your location will determine whether you refer to this treatment as one or the other. A pain reliever and a fever reducer, the exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen/paracetamol is unclear. Many conditions including headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds, and fevers, are treated with acetaminophen (paracetamol). It relieves pain in mild arthritis but does not affect the underlying inflammation and swelling of the joint.
Acetaminophen, Butalbital, CaffeineAlagesic, Anolor 300, Dolgic LQ, Dolgic Plus, Esgic, Fioricet, Geone, Margesic, Medigesic, Orbivan, Repan, ZebutalBarbiturateXTabletsAcuteAcetaminophen is a known pain reliever and fever reducer. Butalbital is part of a group of drugs called barbiturates. They are known to relax muscle contractions involved in a tension headache. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that can relax muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood flow. The combination of acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine is used to treat tension headaches caused by muscle contractions.
Acetaminophen, CodeineTylenol 3 or 4, PanadeineCombination - NarcoticXTablets, LiquidAcuteAcetaminophen/paracetamol with codeine is a narcotic and analgesic/antipyretic combination. It works in the brain and nervous system to decrease mild to moderately severe pain.
Acetaminophen, Dichloralphenazone & IsomethepteneDuradrin, MidrinAnalgesic (painkiller)XCapsulesAcuteAcetaminophen, dichloralphenazone, and isometheptene is a combination analgesic, sedative, and sympathomimetic. It works by decreasing pain, providing sedation, and narrowing the blood vessels in the head and brain. It is used to treat migraine, certain types of headaches (tension, neurovascular), and other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Acetazolamide, methazolamideDiamox Sequels, NeptazaneDiureticXTabletsAcute/PreventiveMedications used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and heart failure. Sometimes used to treat high-pressure headaches by lowering the production of spinal fluid.
Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA)Aspirin, Baby AspirinNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Tablets, dissolvable tabletsAcute/PreventiveRegular low-dose aspirin or "baby" aspirin may be one of the most effective ways to help prevent migraine with aura. When tested against topiramate, a common migraine preventive, Italian researchers found that low doses of aspirin daily may be up to six times more effective than topiramate. Up to 1,000 mg of aspirin may also be used in the acute treatment of migraine.
Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) & CombinationsAsproClear, Arthritis Pain, Ascriptin Enteric, Aspir 81, Aspir-Low, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer ChildrenÕs Aspirin, Bufferin, Easprin, Ecotrin, Ecpirin, Excedrin, Fasprin, Halfprin, Miniprin, St. Joseph AspirinCombinations Ð Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)Tablets, powder, and othersAcuteAspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. It is used to treat pain and reduce fever or inflammation. Sometimes aspirin is used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and chest pain (angina) but it should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor. Some aspirin combination drugs, like Excedrin, also contain acetaminophen/paracetamol and caffeine. Check the label to be sure. Overuse of combination treatments containing caffeine may lead to rebound headaches.
AcyclovirZoviraxAntiviralXTablets, capsules, topical ointmentPreventiveAcyclovir is an antiviral drug that is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses. It treats shingles caused by herpes zoster and outbreaks of herpes simplex. In people with frequent outbreaks of genital herpes, acyclovir is used to help reduce the number of future episodes. Acyclovir can also be useful in the treatment of fibromyalgia and allodynia, often in conjunction with other medications.
AgomelatineValdoxanAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveAgomelatine is primarily used to treat depression. It acts on brain receptors for melatonin, a hormone that is important for regulating sleep, as well as serotonin receptors. It is the only antidepressant that acts on melatonin receptors.
AlmotriptanAxert, AlmogranSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTabletsAcuteAlmotriptan is a second-generation serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist, also known as a triptan. An agonist mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter found naturally in the brain. It works by narrowing the blood vessels around the brain, blocking pain signals and the release of substances that cause other migraine symptoms. A person with a migraine attack is thought to be hypersensitive to widened blood vessels exerting pressure on the brain.
AlprazolamNiravam, XanaxBenzodiazepinesXTabletsPreventiveAlprazolam belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing down the movement of brain chemicals that may become unbalanced. This results in a reduction in nervous tension or anxiety. Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by depression.
AmitriptylineElavil, EndepAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveAmitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced. Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression.
AsenapineSaphrisOther - schizophrenic & bipolarXTabletsPreventiveAsenapine treats schizophrenia. It is used alone or along with lithium or valproate to treat acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder or manic-depression. Asenapine is an atypical antipsychotic. Exactly how it works is not known. It may work by blocking certain substances in the brain.
Aspirin, Caffeine, Orphenadrine NorgesicNSAID Ð combinationXTabletsAcuteOrphenadrine, aspirin, and caffeine is a muscle relaxant and stimulant combination. It works by decreasing pain and inflammation, which helps muscles to relax. This combination relieves mild to moderate pain from certain muscle problems.
Aspirin, CodeineAspalgin, Disprin ForteAnalgesic (painkiller)XTablets, capsulesAcuteAspirin with codeine is an analgesic combination. It works to relieve pain by dulling pain perception in the brain and blocking certain chemicals in the body that cause pain, swelling, and inflammation. It helps relieve mild to severe pain.
AtenololTenorminBeta blockersXTabletsPreventiveAtenolol is part of a group of drugs called beta blockers. Beta blockers affect the heart and the circulation of blood flow through arteries and veins. Atenolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It may also be used to treat or prevent heart attack.
BaclofenLioresal, GablofenMuscle RelaxantXTabletsAcuteBaclofen is a muscle relaxer and an antispastic agent. Baclofen is used to treat muscle symptoms caused by multiple sclerosis including spasm, pain, and stiffness.
Barbital/BarbitoneVeronal, MedinalBarbiturateXCapsule, cachetsPreventiveAs barbital is a controlled substance, other substances have largely replaced barbital-based medications. When barbitone was first introduced, it was considered a great improvement over the existing hypnotics. It was used as a sleeping aid (hypnotic) from 1903 until the mid-1950s.
BudesonideEntocort, Pulmicort, Rhinocort AquaSteroidXCapsule, intranasalPreventiveBudesonide is a steroid that reduces inflammation in the body. Budesonide is primarily used to treat mild to moderate Crohn's disease.
BuprenorphineBuprenex, TemgesicNarcoticXInjection, tabletsAcuteBuprenorphine is a narcotic analgesic. It works on the brain and nervous system to decrease pain. It can help relieve moderate to severe pain.
CandesartanBlopress, Atacand, Amias, RatacandHypertensionXTabletsPreventiveCandesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by relaxing blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure. Candesartan is used to treat high blood pressure alone or with other medicines. It is used in certain patients to treat heart failure. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Cannabidiol oil (CBD)Hundreds of OTC brands; Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved prescription for highly purified CBD oil.PhytocannabidiolTinctures, oils, gummies and other edible forms, creams, gels, sublingual sprays, vapors, transdermal patchesAcute/PreventiveThe nonpsychoactive part of the cannabis, or marijuana plant. CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant, then diluting it with a carrier oil. It has quickly become popular in the health and wellness community, with several research-backed studies suggesting it may be helpful in alleviating such conditions as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, including migraine.
CarbamazepineCarbatrol, Epitol, Equetro, TEGretol, TEGretol XRAnticonvulsantXTabletsPreventiveCarbamazepine is an anticonvulsant. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain. Carbamazepine is used to treat seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. It is also used to treat bipolar disorder.
CarvedilolCoregBeta blockerXTabletsPreventiveCarvedilol is a beta blocker. Beta blockers affect the heart and blood circulation. Carvedilol is used to treat heart failure and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used after a heart attack that has compromised your heartÕs ability to function effectively.
CelecoxibCelebrexNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)XTabletsAcuteCelecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Celecoxib is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and menstrual pain. Celecoxib is also used in the treatment of hereditary polyps in the colon.
CelecoxibCelebrex is the only one available in the U.S. Vioxx and Bextra are no longer available due to increased risk of heart attack and stroke.COX inhibitorXTabletsAcute/PreventiveA sub-class of NSAIDs that work by reducing the production of prostaglandins, the chemicals that promote inflammation, pain, and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are called cyclooxygenase (COX). There are two types: COX-1 and COX-2. Only COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach and intestinal lining. Unlike older NSAIDs that block both inhibitors, the newer COX-2 inhibitors only block the COX-2 enzyme. Sometimes recommended before exercise to prevent a migraine attack.
CetirizineZyrtecAntihistamineTabletsAcuteCetirizine is an antihistamine that reduces the natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Cetirizine is used to treat cold or allergy symptoms such as sneezing, itching, watery eyes, or runny nose. It is also used to treat itching and swelling caused by hives.
CGRPFremanezumab, Galcanezumab, Eptinezumab, ErenumabCGRPXTablets, injectionAcute/PreventiveCGRP is a new class of compounds. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptides (CGRP) are monoclonal antibodies that block the CGRP pathway. CGRP is a peptide of amino acids that is elevated in migraine. If you block it, it will stop a migraine attack. On the preventive side, the CGRP acts at a receptor, a place that turns things on. The antibodies either block the receptor or neutralize the CGRP. CGRP is extraordinarily well tolerated.
ChlorpromazineLargactil, ThorazineOther - schizophrenic & bipolarXCapsule, tablets, injection, suppositoryPreventiveChlorpromazine is a phenothiazine. The exact way chlorpromazine works is not known. It is used to treat certain mental or mood disorders (e.g. schizophrenia), the manic phase of manic-depressive disorder, anxiety and restlessness before surgery, the blood disease porphyria, severe behavioral and conduct disorders in children, nausea and vomiting, and severe hiccups. It is also used with other medicines to treat symptoms associated with tetanus.
CitalopramCipramil, CelexaAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveCitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). This medication works by helping to restore the balance of a certain natural substance (serotonin) in the brain. Citalopram is used to treat depression. It may improve your energy level and feelings of well-being. Leading neurologist Andrew Charles has flagged SSRI medications as having the potential to make migraine worse. If you take an SSRI and have migraine, consider discussing with your medical practitioner whether an alternative medication might be right for you.
ClonidineCatapres, Dixarit, KapvayHypertensionXTabletsPreventiveClonidine lowers blood pressure by decreasing the levels of certain chemicals in your blood. This allows your blood vessels to relax and your heart to beat more slowly and easily. Clonidine is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). The Kapvay brand of clonidine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
CodeineMigraleveNarcoticXCapsule, tablets, rectal suppositoryAcuteCodeine is an opioid pain medication. An opioid is also known as a narcotic. Codeine is used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. Codeine or 3-methylmorphine (a naturally occurring methylated morphine) is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and hypnotic properties. It is also used to suppress premature labor contractions, myocardial infarction, and has many other potential and indicated uses. It is often sold as a salt in the form of either codeine sulfate or codeine phosphate in the United States and Australia. Codeine hydrochloride is more common worldwide than codeine sulfate or phosphate, and citrate, hydroiodide, hydrobromide, tartrate, as well as other salts are also used.
CPAP MachineRESmart, ResMed, Philips, Fisher & PaykelVentilatorXDevicePreventiveContinuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy is a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. It includes a small machine that supplies a constant and steady air pressure, a hose, and a mask or nose cannula.
CyclobenzaprineAmrix, Fexmid, FlexerilMuscle relaxantXTabletsAcuteCyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses or pain sensations that are sent to your brain. It is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury.
CyproheptadinePeriactinAntihistamineXTabletsPreventiveCyproheptadine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking the action of histamine to reduce allergy symptoms. Cyproheptadine is used to treat symptoms of allergic reactions caused by seasonal allergies, food, blood, or plasma. It is also used to treat mild, uncomplicated hives.
DesvenlafaxineKhedezla, PristiqAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveDesvenlafaxine is an oral drug that is used for treating depression. It is in a class of antidepressant drugs called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). SNRIs block or delay the reuptake of the neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine by the presynaptic nerves. This increases the levels of these two neurotransmitters in the synapse and tends to elevate mood. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder and other mood disorders.
DiazepamValiumOther - psychoactive benzodiazepineXTablets, injection, suppositoryAcuteDiazepam is a benzodiazepine. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Diazepam is used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, or muscle spasms. Diazepam is sometimes used with other medications to treat seizures.
DiclofenacCambia, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Zipsor, Zorvolex, VoltarenNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Tablets, injection, gel, suppositoryAcuteDiclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is used to treat mild to moderate pain, or signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Cataflam brand of this medicine is also used to treat menstrual cramps. Diclofenac oral powder (Cambia) is used to treat migraine. Cambia will only treat a headache that has already begun. It will not prevent migraine or reduce the number of migraine attacks.
Dihydroergotamine mesylateDihydergot, DHE 45, MigranalErgot alkaloid - derivativeXInjection, Nasal SprayAcuteDihydroergotamine is used to treat acute migraine with or without aura, and cluster headaches. Dihydroergotamine is an ergot derivative. It works by constricting blood vessels in the brain, which can help to relieve migraine.
DiltiazemCardizem, Cartia XT, Dilacor XR, Dilt-CD, Dilt-XR, Diltia XT, Diltiazem Hydrochloride CD, Diltiazem, Diltzac, Flunarizine, Taztia XT, Tiazac, Cardizem Monovial, Matzim LACalcium channel blockersXTabletsPreventiveDiltiazem is part of a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. These work by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels. Diltiazem is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain heart rhythm disorders.
Divalproex sodiumDepakote, Depakote ER, Depakote SprinklesAnticonvulsantXTabletsPreventiveDivalproex sodium affects chemicals in the body that may be involved in causing seizures. It is used to treat various types of seizure disorders. It is sometimes used together with other seizure medications. Divalproex sodium is also used to treat manic episodes related to bipolar disorder (manic depression) and to prevent migraine headaches.
DomperidoneMolax, Motilium, Motinorm Costi, Nomit Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)XTablets, injection, suppositoryAcuteAnti-emetics help relieve the nausea associated with migraine attacks. Domperidone helps increase the transit of food through the stomach which helps facilitate its anti-nausea properties.
Dosulepin/DothiepinProthiaden, Dothep, Thaden, DopressAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveDosulepin is a tricyclic antidepressant. This class of antidepressants is named after its chemical structure, which contains three rings of atoms. Today they have largely been replaced in clinical use by newer classes of antidepressants.
DoxylamineRestavit, DozileAntihistamineTabletsAcuteDoxylamine is an antihistamine. It works by depressing the central nervous system to produce drowsiness. Doxylamine is used to treat occasional sleeplessness and reduce difficulty falling asleep.
Doxylamine, Paracetamol, CodeineMersyndolAntihistamineTabletsAcuteHelps produce drowsiness along with two active painkiller ingredients. See Codeine & Paracetamol.
DuloxetineCymbaltaAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveDuloxetine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). SNRIs block or delay the reuptake of the neurotransmitters, serotonin, and norepinephrine, by the presynaptic nerves. This increases the levels of these two neurotransmitters in the synapse and tends to elevate mood. SNRIs are used to treat depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder and other mood disorders. Duloxetine can also be useful in the treatment of fibromyalgia and allodynia.
EletriptanRelpaxSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTabletsAcuteEletriptan is a second-generation triptan drug intended for the treatment of migraine. It is used as an abortive treatment to help block a migraine attack that is already in progress.
EptinezumabN/AAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodiesXInjectionPreventiveAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies attach to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inactivate it. CGRP is a peptide of 37 amino acids that is elevated in migraine. Eptinezumab is still undergoing clinical trials.
ErenumabAimovigAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodiesXInjectionPreventiveAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies attach to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inactivate it. CGRP is a peptide of 37 amino acids that is elevated in migraine.
Ergotamine tartrateCafergot, Ergomar, MigrilErgot alkaloid - derivativeXTablets, suppositoryAcuteErgotamine is an ergot derivative. It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which can help to relieve migraine. Some brands, like Cafergot, also contain caffeine.
EscitalopramLexaproAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveEscitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by restoring the balance of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain, which helps to improve certain mood problems. It is used to treat depression or generalized anxiety disorder. Leading neurologist Andrew Charles has flagged SSRI medications as having the potential to make migraine worse. If you take an SSRI and have migraine, consider discussing with your medical practitioner whether an alternative medication might be right for you.
ÊSodium ValproateEpilimAnticonvulsantXTablets, capsules, injectionPreventiveValproate is an anticonvulsant that works by increasing a certain chemical in the brain. The injectable form of sodium valproate is used to control epileptic seizures in patients who are unable to take the oral form. It is also used for the treatment of migraine and bipolar disorder.
Eye Drops Ð Dry EyesArtificial Tears, Cyclosporine, RestasisImmunosuppressant*Eye DropsPreventiveBecause dry-eye symptoms are prevalent in people with migraine, doctors may prescribe artificial tears. Nonprescription eye drops contain preservatives, while prescription formulas like Cyclosporine/Restasis do not. Both decrease inflammation that can cause dry eyes and discomfort for people with migraine.
Eye Drops Ð GlaucomaTimolol, LevobunololBeta blockersXEye DropsAcute/PreventiveBeta blocker eye drops, used to treat glaucoma, have been shown in a series of patients to provide almost complete pain relief from acute migraine over years of use. The mechanism of action of the drops is believed to be the passage of the beta blockers into the nasal cavity, which is then rapidly absorbed into the blood vessels.
FamciclovirFamvirAntiviralXTabletsPreventiveFamciclovir is an antiviral drug that is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses. It treats shingles caused by herpes zoster and outbreaks of herpes simplex. In people with frequent outbreaks of genital herpes, famciclovir is used to help reduce the number of future episodes. It can also be useful in the treatment of fibromyalgia and allodynia, often in conjunction with other medications.
FludrocortisoneFlorinef AcetateOther - corticosteroidXTabletsPreventiveFludrocortisone is a corticosteroid, which is a steroid hormone. It works by causing the kidneys to retain sodium and acting as a replacement for cortisone when the body does not produce enough. It is used to treat adrenocortical insufficiency in Addison's disease and for treating salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome.
FlunarizineSibeliumCalcium channel blockersXTablets, CapsulesPreventiveFlunarizine is part of a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. These work by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels. Flunarizine reduces calcium entry into neurons making them less Òexcitable.Ó
FluoxetineLovan, Prozac, SarafemAntidepressantXCapsulesPreventiveFluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressant. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa (an eating disorder), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Leading neurologist Andrew Charles has flagged SSRI medications as having the potential to make migraine worse. If you take an SSRI and have migraine, consider discussing with your medical practitioner whether an alternative medication might be right for you.
FluvoxamineLuvoxAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveFluvoxamine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by restoring the balance of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain, which helps to decrease obsessive or compulsive behavior. It is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
FremanezumabAjovyAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodiesXInjectionPreventiveAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies attach to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inactivate it. CGRP is a peptide of 37 amino acids that is elevated in migraine.
FrovatriptanFrova, MigardSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTabletsAcuteFrovatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist, also known as a Òtriptan.Ó It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine. It is used to treat acute migraine with or without aura in adults. It should not be used as a migraine preventive.
GabapentinGralise, Horizant, Neurontin, GabaroneAnticonvulsantXTablets, capsulesPreventiveGabapentin is an anticonvulsant medication. It affects chemicals and nerves in the body that are involved in the cause of seizures and some types of pain. Gabapentin is used in adults to treat nerve pain caused by herpes virus or shingles. The Horizant brand is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). The Neurontin brand is also used to treat seizures in adults and children who are at least 3 years old.
GalcanezumabEmgalityAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodiesXInjectionPreventiveAnti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies attach to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inactivate it. CGRP is a peptide of 37 amino acids that is elevated in migraine.
Greater Occipital Nerve BlockSteroid/LidocaineOther - steroid & anestheticXInjectionPreventiveThe occipital nerves are two pairs of nerves originating in the upper cervical vertebrae. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is located just beneath the scalp in the back of the head. This region of the brain deals with vision including color recognition, spatial awareness and word recognition. Most people who have regular migraine and headache also have tenderness in the sub-occipital region of the skull. The purpose of a GON block is to block pain messages to the brain from the GON. In cases where migraine is resistant to medication, or treatment is hindered by adverse effects, a GON block may be explored.
Hormone Replacement Therapy/Contraceptive pills-Other - hormonesXTabletsPreventiveHormone replacement therapy (HRT) refers to any form of hormone therapy where the patient receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones, or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones. HRT is typically prescribed for those experiencing either natural or surgically induced menopause. The main types of hormones involved are estrogens, progesterone or progestins, and sometimes testosterone. ItÕs often referred to as treatment rather than therapy. For pre-menopausal use, contraceptive pills containing hormones may be used to skip periods (and can avert menstrual migraine).
HydrocodoneHysingla ER, Zohydro ERNarcoticXTablets, suppository, intranasalAcuteHydrocodone is an opioid pain medication. An opioid is also referred to as a narcotic. Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER are extended-release forms of hydrocodone that are used for around-the-clock treatment of severe pain. Extended-release hydrocodone is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
HydromorphoneDilaudid-HP, JurnistaNarcoticXTabletsAcuteHydromorphone is an opioid (narcotic) analgesic. It works in the brain and nervous system to reduce pain. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain in narcotic-tolerant patients who require larger than usual doses to provide adequate pain relief.
HydroxyzineAtarax, Alamon, Aterax, Durrax, Equipose, Masmoran Vistaril, Vistaril IM, Hyzine, Vistaject-50, Rezine, Tran-Q, Orgatrax, Quiess, Tranquizine, Vistacon, Vistacot, VistazineAntihistamineXTablets, capsules, injectionAcuteHydroxyzine reduces activity in the central nervous system. It also acts as an antihistamine that reduces natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing and runny nose, or hives on the skin. Hydroxyzine is used as a sedative to treat anxiety and tension. It is also used together with other medications for anesthesia. Hydroxyzine may also be used to control nausea and vomiting. Hydroxyzine is also used to treat allergic skin reactions such as hives or contact dermatitis.
IbuprofenAdvil, Genpril, IBU, Midol, Motrin, Nuprin, NurofenNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Tablets, suppository, injection, topicalAcuteIbuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Ibuprofen is used to reduce fever and treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as headache, toothache, back pain, arthritis, menstrual cramps, or minor injury.
Ibuprofen, CodeineProVen Plus, Rafen Plus, Panafen Plus, Nurofen PlusNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)TabletsAcuteIn this combination formula Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is combined with codeine to reduce pain and inflammation. See Ibuprofen and Codeine for their separate descriptions.
IndomethacinIndocin, IndocidNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)XCapsules suppository, injection, topicalAcuteIndomethacin is used to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in certain premature infants. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is thought to work by blocking the action of a certain chemical in the body called prostaglandin.
IrbesartanAbisart, AvaproHypertensionXTabletsPreventiveIrbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), which relaxes blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure. It is also used in certain patients to treat kidney problems caused by diabetes.
Isometheptene mucateMidrin, DuradrinOtherCapsulesAcuteIsometheptene works by causing the blood vessels in the brain to narrow. By decreasing the width of blood vessels, isometheptene helps relieve the pain from migraine attacks. It is often used in combination with other active ingredients. The British National Formulary states that as more effective preparations are now available, this is no longer widely used.
KetamineKetalarAnestheticXInjection, IVAcuteKetamine is an anesthetic. It works in the brain to inhibit painful sensations. Because it has powerful psychogenic side effects and can produce adverse reactions in some patients, it is frequently administered under careful supervision by an anesthesiologist.
KetoprofenActron, Orudis, OruvailNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)XCapsules, injection, topicalAcuteKetoprofen is an NSAID. Exactly how it works is not known. It may block certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation. They do not treat the disease that causes those symptoms. Ketoprofen is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. It is also used to treat menstrual cramps and pain. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
KetorolacToradolNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)XTablets, injection, IVAcuteKetorolac is an NSAID indicated for short-term management of moderate to severe pain. Concerns about the high incidence of reported side effects has led to restriction in its dosage and maximum duration of use. In the U.K., treatment should be initiated only in a hospital. Maximum duration of treatment should not exceed five days for tablets (per package insert), or two days for continuous daily dosing with intravenous or intramuscular formulations. May be used intravenously in hospital or emergency settings. Ketorolac is used in the short-term (up to five days) treatment of moderately severe pain (usually after surgery), alone or in combination with other medicines.
LamotriginLamictalAnticonvulsantXTabletsPreventiveLamotrigine is an anticonvulsant. Exactly how it works is not known. It is used to treat certain types of seizures. It may be used alone or with other medicines. It may also be used to delay the occurrence of mood problems in certain patients with bipolar disorder.
LasmiditanN/ADitanXAcuteDitans are related to triptans. Like triptans, they also work on serotonin receptors, but they work on the receptors that are not found on the blood vessels. Ditans are a potential acute therapy option for people with migraine who have heart conditions, as they avoid the blood vessels while working on similar mechanisms as triptans.
LevetiracetamKeppraAnticonvulsantXTabletsPreventiveLevetiracetam is an anticonvulsant. Exactly how it works is not known, but it may work by slowing abnormal nerve impulses in the brain. Levetiracetam is used to treat partial-onset, myoclonic, or other types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. It may be used in combination with other medicines.
LoratadineAlavert, Alavert Allergy, Claritin, lear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Dimetapp ND, Loratadine Reditab, Tavist ND, Wal-itinAntihistamineTabletsAcuteLoratadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Loratadine is used to treat the symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions.
Marijuana/Medical Cannabis-OtherXTea, edibles, capsules, oilsAcuteThe use of medical marijuana for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea, glaucoma, spasticity in multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain has been clinically demonstrated to some extent. The likelihood of undesirable adverse reactions limits its applications, and therapeutic use may be limited to either concomitant therapy or when conventional therapy has failed.
Mefenamic acidPonstan, PonstelNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)CapsulesAcuteMefenamic acid is an NSAID. Exactly how it works is not known. It may block certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation. Mefenamic acid is used for menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.
MeloxicamMobic, MovalisNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)XTabletsAcuteMeloxicam (Mobic) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Meloxicam is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in adults and children who are at least 2 years old.
MemantineAbixa, Akatinol, Axura, Ebixa, Memox, NamendaOther - central nervous system agentXTabletsPreventiveMemantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist. It works by blocking excess activity of a substance in the brain called glutamate, which may reduce the symptoms associated with Alzheimer disease. Memantine is not a cure for Alzheimer disease. It is used to help treat moderate to severe Alzheimer-type dementia.
MeperidineDemerolNarcoticXTablets, injectionAcuteMeperidine is a narcotic analgesic. It works in the brain and nervous system to decrease pain. Meperidine is used in the short-term treatment of moderate to severe pain. It may also be used before or during surgery (e.g., to support anesthesia), for pain relief during labor and delivery, or for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
MetaxaloneSkelaxinMuscle relaxantXTablets, capsulesAcuteMetaxalone (brand name Skelaxin) is a muscle relaxant used to relax muscles and relieve pain caused by strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it may be due to general central nervous system depression.
Methocarbamol, AcetaminophenRobaxin, RobaxacetMuscle relaxantTablets, injectionAcuteMethocarbamol is a central muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle spasms. It is used in conjunction with acetaminophen. See acetaminophen for a separate description of this medication.
Methyl SalicylateMenthoderm, Thera-Gesic Plus, Salonpas Pain PatchOther - topical rubefacientTopicalAcuteMethyl salicylate/menthol cream is a topical analgesic. It works by temporarily relieving minor pain. Topical rubefacients cause irritation and reddening of the skin, due to increased blood flow. They are used in the treatment of pain in various musculoskeletal conditions and in the temporary relief of minor aches and pains caused by arthritis, simple backache, strains, sprains, and bruises.
MethysergideDeseril, SansertAnti-serotonergic (Anti 5-HT)XTabletsPreventiveThe exact way that methysergide works is unknown. It is believed to be involved in narrowing the veins and arteries that supply blood to your head. Serotonin (5-HT) is a chemical occurring in the body, and is thought to play a key role in migraine. These drugs block 5-HT2 receptors to stop the effects of 5-HT. Methysergide is a semi-synthetic ergot alkaloid. It should only be administered under hospital supervision because of the potential side effects (retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of heart values and pleura).
MetoclopramideMaxolon, Metozolv ODT, Pramin, ReglanAnti-emetic (anti-nausea)XTablets, injectionAcuteMetoclopramide increases muscle contractions in the upper digestive tract. This speeds up the rate at which the stomach empties into the intestines. Metoclopramide is used short-term to treat heartburn caused by gastroesophageal reflux in people who have used other medications without relief of symptoms. Metoclopramide is also used to treat slow gastric emptying in people with diabetes (also called diabetic gastroparesis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite, and a feeling of fullness after meals.
Metoclopramide, ParacetamolAnagrain, Metomax, ParamaxOther - combination analgesic & anti-emetic (anti-nausea)TabletsAcuteThe combination of metoclopramide and paracetamol is used to treat the symptoms of migraine, both to relieve headache (the Paracetamol) and to treat associated nausea and vomiting (the anti-emetic). In addition to its direct anti-emetic effect, metoclopramide also stimulates gastric emptying (prokinetic), which is often delayed during migraine attacks, and accelerates the absorption of paracetamol.
MetoprololDutoprol, Betaloc, LopressorBeta blockerXTabletsPreventiveMetoprolol is a beta blocker that affects the heart and circulation. Metoprolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.
MirtazapineRemeronAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveMirtazapine is an antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression. Mirtazapine is used to treat major depressive disorder.
MometasoneElocon, NasonexSteroidTopical, intranasalAcuteMometasone is a corticosteroid (a steroid hormone). It works by reducing inflammatory reactions and modifying immune reactions in the body. The topical format is used for treating and preventing allergic nasal symptoms including congestion, sneezing, itching, and runny nose. It is also used for treatment of growths in the nose (nasal polyps). As a spray, it reduces inflammatory reactions in the nasal airway in response to allergens and irritants in the air. It is used to treat itching, redness, and swelling in many skin conditions.
MorphineAVINza, Kadian, MS ContinNarcoticXTablets, injection, suppository, inhalationAcuteMorphine is an opioid or narcotic pain medication. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Short-acting formulations are taken as needed for pain. The extended-release form of this medicine is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. This form of morphine is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
MoxonidinePhysiotensHypertensionXTabletsPreventiveMonoxidine is a blood pressure treatment that works by relaxing the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. This means that your blood vessels widen, which reduces your blood pressure and allows blood and oxygen to circulate more freely around your body.
NadololCorgardBeta blockerXTabletsPreventiveNadolol is a beta blocker. It works by slowing down the heart and decreasing the amount of blood it pumps out. This helps to decrease blood pressure, helps the heart pump more efficiently, and reduces the workload on the heart. Nadolol is used in the long-term management of angina (chest pain). It is also used alone or with other medicines to treat high blood pressure.
NaproxenAleve, Anaprox, Anaprox-DS, EC-Naprosyn, Leader Naproxen Sodium, Midol Extended Relief, Naprelan 375, Naprosyn, SynflexNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)TabletsAcuteNaproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Naproxen is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, gout, or menstrual cramps. Naproxen is the preferred NSAID for long-term use in people with a high risk of cardiovascular (for example, heart attacks or strokes) complications, due to its relatively low risk of causing such complications.
NaratriptanAmerge, NaramigSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTabletsAcuteNaratriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist. It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain. It is used to relieve certain types of migraine.
NimodipineNimotopCalcium channel blockersXCapsules, injectionPreventiveNimodipine is a calcium channel-blocking agent. Exactly how nimodipine works is unknown. It is used to help reduce problems from a lack of oxygen caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain.
NitrazepamAlodorm, Arem, Insoma, Insomin, Mogadon, Nitrados, Nitrazadon, Nitrosun, Ormodon, Paxadorm, Remnos, SomniteHypnoticXTabletsAcuteNitrazepam is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class, indicated for the short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia. It also has sedative and motor-impairing properties, as well as amnestic, anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant effects.
NortriptylineAllegron, PamelorAntidepressantXCapsulePreventiveNortriptyline belongs to a group of medicines called tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). It is used to treat depression and some other conditions. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.
OnabotulinumtoxinABotoxMuscle relaxantXInjectionPreventiveOnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), also called botulinum toxin type A, is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles, causing a temporary reduction in muscle activity. Botox can be used to prevent chronic migraine in adults who have migraine for more than 15 days per month, each lasting 4 hours or longer. Botox should not be used to treat a common tension headache. In the doctorÕs office, multiple Botox injections are inserted into the muscles of the forehead, head and neck, and treatment is repeated every 12 weeks if successful. However, there are maximum dose limits to be aware of when using Botox. Botox is also used for other conditions and cosmetic purposes such as to smooth wrinkles or for an overactive bladder.
OndansetronZofran, Zofran ODT, ZuplenzAnti-emetic (anti-nausea)XTablets, injectionAcuteOndansetron blocks the actions of chemicals in the body that can trigger nausea and vomiting. It is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may be caused by surgery or by medicine to treat cancer (chemotherapy or radiation).
OxycodoneEndone, Oxecta, OxyContin, Oxyfast, RoxicodoneNarcoticXTablets, injection, suppositoryAcuteOxycodone is an opioid/narcotic pain medication. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Oxygen--Inhalant/DeviceXCannula/MaskAcute/PreventiveIt has been shown that oxygen causes a marked decrease in cerebral blood flow concurrent with a reduced degree of pain in cluster headache. There are two high-flow oxygen delivery methods for migraines: normobaric and hyperbaric, with normobaric more effective for migraine.
Oxymetazoline nasalAllerest, Afrin, Mucinex, Nostrilla, SinexDecongestantIntranasal SprayAcuteOxymetazoline solution is a decongestant. It works by shrinking swollen and congested nasal tissues (mucous membranes) by constricting blood vessels. This results in relief of congestion, improved drainage of mucus, and improved breathing through the nose. Local application using nose drops or sprays causes more intense and rapid vasoconstriction than oral medicines such as tablets or syrups.
PantoprazoleProtonix, Protonix IV, SomacProton-pump inhibitorsXTablets, injectionAcutePantoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. It is used to treat erosive esophagitis (damage to the esophagus from stomach acid), and other conditions involving excess stomach acid such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Pantoprazole is not for immediate relief of heartburn symptoms. Leading neurologist Andrew Charles has flagged proton-pump inhibitors as having the potential to make migraine worse. If you use a proton-pump inhibitor and have migraine, consider discussing with your medical practitioner whether an alternative medication might be right for you.
Paracetamol, CodeineParacodolNarcoticXTabletsAcuteThis treatment contains the active ingredients paracetamol and codeine phosphate. It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain when milder painkillers are not effective. Paracetamol belongs the analgesic group of medicines. It is also an antipyretic, which helps reduce your body temperature if you have a fever. Codeine phosphate is also an analgesic, and acts by blocking pain and emotional response to pain. See codeine for more detail.
Paracetamol, IbuprofenMaxigesicCombination - Analgesic & NSAIDTabletsAcuteFor the temporary relief of mild to moderate pain associated with migraine, headache, backache, period pain, dental pain, rheumatic and muscular pain, pain of non-serious arthritis, cold and flu symptoms, sore throat and fever. This combination is especially suitable for pain which requires stronger analgesia than ibuprofen or paracetamol alone.
PFO Valve ClosureN/AProcedureX--PreventiveMultiple studies suggest that migraine with aura is more prevalent in subjects with patent foramen ovale (PFO), an open passage between the chambers of the heart. Several studies suggest that PFO closure, a surgical procedure, may be an effective treatment for migraine. However, the grade of evidence from these studies is low.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride, IbuprofenSudafed PECombination - Decongestant & NSAIDTabletsAcuteContains ibuprofen and phenylephrine hydrochloride, which are effective in relieving the symptoms of influenza and cold, including fever, headache, painful sinuses, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. Moreover, it helps relieve a runny or stuffy nose and nasal sinuses.
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride, ParacetamolDimetapp PE Sinus Pain, Lemsip Cold & Flu, Panadol Cold & Flu, SudafedCombination - Decongestant & AnalgesicTabletsAcuteThis combination medication contains a decongestant & analgesic (paracetamol), and can help ease symptoms such as blocked or runny nose, sore throat, and body aches and headaches.
PizotifenSandomigranAnti-serotonergic (Anti 5-HT)XTabletsPreventivePizotifen acts on serotonin (5-HT), a chemical that is thought to play a key role in migraine. It is part of a class of drugs that block 5-HT2 receptors to inhibit the effects of 5-HT. Pizotifen also has antihistamine properties and is related to the tricyclic group of antidepressants.
PotassiumVariousVitamin/supplementXTablets, liquid format, I.V. infusionAcute/PreventiveA mineral and electrolyte that assists in a number of body functions, including blood pressure, water balance, muscle contractions, digestion, heart rhythm and pH balance. It is sometimes taken in supplement form to balance electrolytes, often low due to migraine and nausea.
PrednisoneRayos, SterapredSteroidXTablets, injection, suppository, nasalAcutePrednisone is a corticosteroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also suppresses the immune system. Prednisone is used as an anti-inflammatory or an immunosuppressant medication. Prednisone treats many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, and breathing disorders.
PregabalinLyricaAnticonvulsantXCapsulesPreventivePregabalin is an anticonvulsant and neuropathic pain agent. Exactly how pregabalin works is not known. It is thought to bind to certain areas in the brain that help reduce seizures, nerve pain, and anxiety. Pregabalin is used to treat fibromyalgia or nerve pain caused by certain conditions (e.g., shingles, diabetic nerve problems, spinal cord injury). It is also used in combination with other medicines to treat certain types of seizures. Pregabalin can also be useful in the treatment of allodynia.
ProchlorperazineCompazine, Stemzine, Buccastem, Stemetil, PhenotilAnti-emetic (anti-nausea) & AntipsychoticXTablets, injection, suppositoryAcuteProchlorperazine is a phenothiazine. It is not known exactly how it works. It is a highly potent typical antipsychotic, 10Ð20_ more potent than chlorpromazine. It is used to help control severe nausea and vomiting, and to treat schizophrenia. It is also used to treat migraine. Intravenous administration can be used to treat status migrainosus.
PromethazinePhenergan, Promethegan, Romergan, Fargan, Farganesse, Fenazin, Prothiazine, Avomine, Atosil, Receptozine, Lergigan, Pipolphen, SominexAntihistamine & Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)XTablets, injection, suppositoryAcutePromethazine works by changing the actions of chemicals in your brain. Promethazine also acts as an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the naturally occurring chemical histamine in your body. Promethazine is used to treat allergy symptoms such as itching, runny nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, hives, and itchy skin rashes. It also prevents motion sickness, and treats nausea and vomiting or pain after surgery. It is also used as a sedative or sleep aid.
PropranololHemangeol, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL, InderalBeta blockerXTablets, injection, suppositoryPreventivePropranolol is a beta blocker. Beta blockers affect the heart and blood circulation. Propranolol is used to treat tremors, angina (chest pain), hypertension (high blood pressure), heart rhythm disorders, and other heart or circulatory conditions. It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack and to reduce the severity and frequency of migraine.
PseudoephedrineContac Cold, Drixoral Decongestant Non-Drowsy, Elixsure Decongestant, Entex, Genaphed, Kid Kare Drops, Nasofed, Seudotabs, Silfedrine, Sudafed, Sudodrin, SudoGest, Suphedrin, Triaminic Softchews Allergy Congestion, UnifedDecongestantTablets, capsulesAcutePseudoephedrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal congestion or stuffy nose. Pseudoephedrine is used to treat nasal and sinus congestion, or congestion of the tubes that drain fluid from your inner ears, called the eustachian tubes.
QuetiapineSeroquelAntipsychoticXTabletsPreventiveQuetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic. Exactly how it works is not known. It is thought to affect certain substances in the brain. It is used to treat schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
RizatriptanMaxaltSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTablets, sublingualAcuteRizatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist or "triptan.Ó It works by narrowing dilated blood vessels in the brain, relieving migraine. It is used to treat migraine with or without aura. It should not be used to prevent migraines or to treat cluster headache.
SertralineZoloftAntidepressantXTabletsPreventiveSertraline is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Leading neurologist Andrew Charles has flagged SSRI medications as having the potential to make migraine worse. If you take an SSRI and have migraine, consider discussing with your medical practitioner whether an alternative medication might work for you.
Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) DeviceSphenocath, Allevio, & Tx360ÊNeuromodulationXDevicePreventiveThe Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) is a group of nerve cells that is linked to the trigeminal nerve, the main nerve involved in headache. Application of local anesthetics (or numbing medications) to block or partially block the SPG, can be helpful in reducing head and facial pain. Three devices have been approved for performing SPG blocks. A doctor inserts a very thin plastic tube into the nose to insert numbing medication in and around the SPG.
SumatriptanImigran, Imitrex, Treximet, Zembrace Symtouch, Onzetra XSail, Sumavel DosePro, Serotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTablets, injection, Needle-less injection, nasal sprayAcuteSumatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist (triptan). It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine and cluster headache. Sumatriptan is used to treat migraine with or without aura. It is one of the most common treatments with numerous high quality studies demonstrating itÕs scientific efficacy for the treatment of acute migraine. It is also used to treat cluster headache. The Treximet brand is a combination of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium, both of which are available as generics.
TimololBlocadren, Betimol, Betrim, Istalol, TimopticBeta blockerXTablets, eye dropsPreventiveTimolol is part of a group of drugs called beta blockers. It is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Timolol eye drops are used to treat increased pressure in the eye (ocular hypertension) and open-angle glaucoma. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
TizanidineZanaflexMuscle relaxantXTablets, injection, intranasalAcuteTizanidine is a short-acting muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses or pain sensations that are sent to your brain. Tizanidine is used to treat spasticity by temporarily relaxing muscle tone.
TopiramateTopamaxAnticonvulsantXTabletsPreventiveTopiramate is an anticonvulsant that is also helpful to prevent migraine. It works by affecting several chemicals in the brain that help to reduce seizure activity and prevent migraine from occurring. It may be used alone or with other medications.
TramadolConZip, Rybix ODT, Ryzolt, UltramNarcotic-like painkillerXTablets, injection, suppositoryAcuteTramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Tramadol is a centrally acting, oral narcotic-like analgesic and is approved for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain in adults. The extended-release form of tramadol is for around-the-clock treatment of pain and not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
Tramadol, Paracetamol/AcetaminophenTramacet, UltracetNarcotic-like & Analgesic (painkiller)XTablets, injectionAcuteThis formulation combines individual ingredients for a stronger effect. See individual active ingredients for mode of action.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) devicesTMS miniNeuromodulationXDeviceAcuteTMS uses magnets to emit just a single pulse of electricity. This pulse has been shown to treat cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is the physical change in the brain during aura and migraine. Research shows that daily use of TMS for 3 months or longer can lead to a reduction in acute medication use. eNeuraÕs sTMS mini is a TMS device available via prescription.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) deviceCefalyNeuromodulationXDevicePreventive/AcuteTENS units are predominately used for nerve-related pain conditions, which may be acute or chronic. TENS machines work by sending stimulating pulses across the surface of the skin and along the nerve strands. The stimulating pulses help prevent pain signals from reaching the brain. TENS devices also help stimulate your body to produce higher levels of endorphins, its natural painkillers. The Cefaly I is a battery-powered headband. Cefaly II isa smaller rechargeable unit with adjustable intensity.
Vagus-Nerve Stimulation (VNS) deviceGammacoreNeuromodulationXDeviceAcuteThe vagus-nerve runs from the brainstem through the chest and abdomen on each side of the body. Vagus nerve stimulation appears to inhibit cortical spreading depression as well as calm the brainÕs excitability. A VNS device stimulates the production of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, serotonin and norepinephrine, which affect migraine and cluster headache. GammaCore is a handheld VNS device that stimulates the nerves noninvasively when placed above the vagus nerve in the neck.
Valproic acid, zonisamide, lidocaine, amilorideValproic, Lidocaine, Ranolazine, Phenytoin, Disopyramide, Midamor Sodium channel blockersXTablets, injectionAcute/PreventiveAnti-arrhythmic compounds that bind to and block sodium influx through cell membranes. Some are also used as local anesthetics and anticonvulsants. Sometimes used to treat chronic migraine. Primarily prescribed for high blood pressure, heart failure, or edema. There have been some reports that it is used to treat patients with migraine with aura, but further studies are needed.
VenlafaxineEffexorAntidepressantXTablets, capsulesPreventiveVenlafaxine is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs). Venlafaxine affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression. Venlafaxine is used to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety, and panic disorder.
VerapamilIsoptin, CalanCalcium channel blockersXTablets, injectionPreventiveVerapamil is a calcium channel blocker. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels. Verapamil is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain heart rhythm disorders.
ZolmitriptanZomigSerotonin 5-HT1 agonists or triptansXTablets, nasal sprayAcuteZolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist or "triptan." It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine. It is used to treat migraine with or without aura in adults. It is not intended to prevent migraines.
ZolpidemAmbien, Edluar, Intermezzo, Stilnox, Zonadin, Sanval, Zolpimist HypnogenHypnoticXTablets, suppositoryAcuteZolpidem is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. It affects chemicals in your brain that may become unbalanced and cause sleep problems or insomnia. The immediate-release forms of zolpidem are Ambien, Intermezzo, Edluar, and Zolpimist. The extended-release form of zolpidem is Ambien CR. Ambien, Edluar, and Zolpimist are used to help you fall asleep when you first go to bed. Intermezzo is used to help you fall back asleep if you wake up in the middle of the night.
ZonisamideZonegranAnticonvulsantXCapsulesPreventiveZonisamide is often used in combination with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Zonisamide is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

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