Medical Migraine Treatments
Treatments are listed in rows with a short description. This section includes Drugs, Devices and Procedures.
How to use this reference:
- Generic name: The active ingredient in the medication i.e. Ibuprofen is the active ingredient in Advil.
- Brand Name: The branded product that contains the active ingredient i.e. Advil is a branded product whose active ingredient is Ibuprofen.
- Drug Class: The classification of the active ingredient i.e. Ibuprofen’s drug class is NSAID (non steroidal anti-inflammatory)
- Prescription Required: If a prescription is required to purchase a medication, it will be marked as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.
- Format: This refers to the different formats available for a treatment i.e. tablets, capsules, injection, intranasal, topical, etc.
- Preventative or Acute Treatment: Acute medications are taken at the onset of a migraine attack to help treat the symptoms of pain, nausea or other migraine-related disability. Preventative treatments help reduce or stop migraine attacks from occurring in the first place. Preventative treatments are often taken regularly (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly) whether or not you have a migraine attack.
- Description: A short summary about what the treatment does.
Search on any term by using the search field. Sort on any column. Show more rows by increasing the display number.
|Generic Name (Active Ingredient List)||Brand Names||Drug Class||Prescription?||Format||Preventative or Acute Treatment||Description|
|Acetaminophen or Paracetamol||Panadol, Tylenol||Analgesic (painkiller)||No||Tablets, Capsules||Acute||Acetaminophen is the same as Paracetamol. Your location will determine whether you refer to this treatment as one or the other. Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and a fever reducer. The exact mechanism of action is not known.
Acetaminophen is used to treat many conditions such as headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds and fevers. It relieves pain in mild arthritis but has no effect on the underlying inflammation and swelling of the joint.
|Acetaminophen, butalbital, caffeine||Alagesic, Anolor 300, Dolgic LQ, Dolgic Plus, Esgic, Fioricet, Geone, Margesic, Medigesic, Orbivan, Repan, Zebutal||Barbiturate||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and fever reducer. Butalbital is in a group of drugs called barbiturates. It relaxes muscle contractions involved in a tension headache. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood flow.
Fioricet is used to treat tension headaches that are caused by muscle contractions. Fioricet contains a combination of acetaminophen, butalbital and caffeine.
|Acetaminophen, Codeine||Tylenol 3 or 4||Narcotic||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Acetaminophen/codeine is a narcotic and analgesic/antipyretic combination. It works in the brain and nervous system to decrease pain.
It helps to relieve mild to moderately severe pain.
|Acetaminophen, dichloralphenazone & isometheptene||Duradrin, Midrin||Analgesic (painkiller)||Yes||Capsules||Acute||Acetaminophen, dichloralphenazone, isometheptene is a combination analgesic, sedative and sympathomimetic. It works by decreasing pain, providing sedation and narrowing the blood vessels in the head and brain.
It is used to treat certain types of headaches (tension, vascular). It may also be used to treat migraine headaches. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
|Agomelatine||Valdoxan||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Agomelatine is primarily used to treat depression. It acts on brain receptors for melatonin, a hormone that is important for regulating sleep, as well as serotonin receptors. Agomelatine is the only antidepressant that acts on melatonin receptors.|
|Almotriptan||Axert, Almogran||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets||Acute||Almotriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist also known as a ‘triptan’. An agonist mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter found naturally in the brain. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the brain and thereby reducing pressure and pain in the brain. A migraine headache is thought to be hyper sensitive to widened blood vessels exerting pressure on the brain.|
|Alprazolam||Niravam, Xanax||Benzodiazepines||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Alprazolam belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing down the movement of chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced. This results in a reduction in nervous tension or anxiety.
Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders and anxiety caused by depression.
|Amidrine-Isometheptene, Dichloralphenazone, Acetaminophen||Diacetazone, Duradrin, Epidrin, Iso-Acetazone, Midrin, Migquin, Migratine, Migrazone, Migrin-A, Nodolor, Va-Zone||Other-painkiller||Yes||Capsules||Acute||Isometheptene, dichloralphenazone, and acetaminophen is a combination used to treat certain kinds of headaches, such as tension headaches and migraine headaches. This combination is not used to prevent headaches. It should be taken only after headache pain begins, or after a warning sign that a migraine is coming.
Isometheptene helps to relieve throbbing headaches, but it is not an ordinary pain reliever. Dichloralphenazone helps you to relax, and acetaminophen relieves pain.
|Amitriptyline||Elavil, Endep||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.
Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression.
|Asenapine||Saphris||Other-schizophrenic & bi-polar||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Treats schizophrenia. It is used alone or along with Lithium or Valproate to treat acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder or manic-depression.
Asenapine is an atypical antipsychotic. Exactly how it works is not known. It may work by blocking certain substances in the brain.
|Aspirin & Combination Aspirins||AsproClear, Arthritis Pain, Ascriptin Enteric, Aspir 81, Aspir-Low, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Children’s Aspirin, Bufferin, Easprin, Ecotrin, Ecpirin, Excedrin, Fasprin, Halfprin, Miniprin, St. JosephAsproClear, Arthritis Pain, Ascriptin Enteric, Aspir 81, Aspir-Low, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Children’s Aspirin, Bufferin, Easprin, Ecotrin, Ecpirin, Excedrin, Fasprin, Halfprin, Miniprin, St. Joseph Aspirin|
Ecotrin, Ecpirin,Excedrin, Fasprin, Halfprin, Miniprin,
St. Joseph Aspirin
|Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs|
|No||Tablets||Acute||Aspirin works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever and inflammation.
Aspirin is used to treat pain and reduce fever or inflammation. It is sometimes used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and chest pain (angina). Aspirin should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor.
Some, like Excedrin, also contain Acetaminophen and Caffeine. Check the label to be sure.
|Aspirin, Caffeine, Orphenadrine||Norgesic||NSAID-|
|Yes||Tablets||Acute||Orphenadrine, Aspirin, Caffeine is a muscle relaxant and stimulant combination. It works by decreasing pain and inflammation, which helps muscles to relax.
It relieves mild to moderate pain from certain muscle problems.
|Aspirin, Codeine||Aspalgin, Disprin Forte||Analgesic (painkiller)||Yes||Tablets,|
|Acute||Aspirin with codeine is an analgesic combination. It works to relieve pain by dulling pain perception in the brain and blocking certain chemicals in the body that cause pain, swelling and inflammation. It helps relieve mild to severe pain.|
|Aspirin, Sodium Bicarbonate, Citric Acid||Arthritis Pain, Ascriptin Enteric, Aspir 81, Aspir-Low, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Children’s Aspirin, Bufferin, Easprin, Ecotrin, Ecpirin, Fasprin, Halfprin, Miniprin, St. Joseph Aspirin||NSAID-|
|No||Tablet||Acute||Aspirin, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid combination is used to relieve pain occurring together with heartburn, sour stomach or acid indigestion.
The aspirin in this combination is the pain reliever. Aspirin belongs to the group of medicines known as salicylates and to the group of medicines known as anti-inflammatory analgesics. The sodium bicarbonate is an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid by combining with it to form a new substance that is not an acid.
Aspirin, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid combination may also be used to lessen the chance of heart attack, stroke or other problems that may occur when a blood vessel is blocked by blood clots. Aspirin, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid can help prevent dangerous blood clots from forming. However, this effect of aspirin may increase the chance of serious bleeding in some people.
|Atenolol||Tenormin||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Atenolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and the circulation of blood flow through arteries and veins.
Atenolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It may also be used to treat or prevent heart attack.
|Baclofen||Lioresal, Gablofen||Muscle Relaxant||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Baclofen is a muscle relaxer and an antispastic agent.
Baclofen is used to treat muscle symptoms caused by multiple sclerosis including spasm, pain, and stiffness.
|Barbital/ Barbitone||Veronal, Medinal||Barbiturate||Yes||Capsule, Cachets||Preventative||As barbital is a controlled substance, other substances have largely replaced barbital-based buffers. Barbitone was considered to be a great improvement over the existing hypnotics. It was used as a sleeping aid (hypnotic) from 1903 until the mid-1950s.|
|Budesonide||Entocort, Pulmicort, Rhinocort Aqua||Steroid||Yes||Capsule,|
|Preventative||Budesonide is a steroid that reduces inflammation in the body.
Budesonide is primarily used to treat mild to moderate Crohn's disease.
|Acute||Buprenorphine is a narcotic analgesic. It works by working in the brain and nervous system to decrease pain. It can help relieve moderate to severe pain.|
|Candesartan||Blopress, Atacand, Amias, Ratacand||Hypertension||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Candesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by relaxing blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure.
It is used to treat high blood pressure alone or with other medicines. It is used in certain patients to treat heart failure. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
|Carbamazepine||Carbatrol, Epitol, Equetro, TEGretol, TEGretol XR||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain.
It is used to treat seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. It is also used to treat bipolar disorder.
|Carvedilol||Coreg||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Carvedilol is a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers affect the heart and blood circulation.
Carvedilol is used to treat heart failure and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used after a heart attack that has compromised your heart’s ability to function effectively.
|Celecoxib||Celebrex||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
Celecoxib is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and menstrual pain. Celecoxib is also used in the treatment of hereditary polyps in the colon.
|Cetirizine||Zyrtec||Anti-histamine||No||Tablets||Acute||Cetirizine is an antihistamine that reduces the natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes and runny nose. It is used to treat cold or allergy symptoms such as sneezing, itching, watery eyes or runny nose.
Cetirizine is also used to treat itching and swelling caused by hives.
|Chlorpromazine||Largactil, Thorazine||Other-schizophrenic & bi-polar||Yes||Capsule, tablet, injection, suppository||Preventative||Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine. The exact way chlorpromazine works is not known.
It is used to treat certain mental or mood disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the manic phase of manic-depressive disorder, anxiety and restlessness before surgery, the blood disease porphyria, severe behavioural and conduct disorders in children, nausea and vomiting and severe hiccups. It is also used with other medicines to treat symptoms associated with tetanus.
|Clonidine||Catapres, Dixarit, Kapvay||Hypertension||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Clonidine lowers blood pressure by decreasing the levels of certain chemicals in your blood. This allows your blood vessels to relax and your heart to beat more slowly and easily.
Clonidine is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). The Kapvay brand of clonidine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
|Codeine||Migraleve||Narcotic||Yes||Capsule, tablet, rectal supposito|
|Acute||Clonidine lowers blood pressure by decreasing the levels of certain chemicals in your blood. This allows your blood vessels to relax and your heart to beat more slowly and easily.
Clonidine is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). The Kapvay brand of clonidine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
|CPAP Machine||RESmart, ResMed Philips, Fisher & Paykel||n/a||Yes||Device||Preventative||Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy is a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. It includes a small machine that supplies a constant and steady air pressure, a hose and a mask or nose cannula.|
|Cyclobenzaprine||Amrix, Fexmid, Flexeril||Muscle relaxant||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking the action of histamine to reduce allergy symptoms.
It is used to treat symptoms of allergic reactions caused by seasonal allergies, food, blood or plasma. It is also used to treat mild, uncomplicated hives.
|Cyproheptadine||Periactin||Anti-histamine||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking the action of histamine to reduce allergy symptoms.
It is used to treat symptoms of allergic reactions caused by seasonal allergies, food, blood or plasma. It is also used to treat mild, uncomplicated hives.
|Desvenlafaxine||Khedezla, Pristiq||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Desvenlafaxine is an oral drug that is used for treating depression. It is in a class of antidepressant drugs called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). SNRIs block or delay the reuptake of the neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine by the presynaptic nerves. This increases the levels of these two neurotransmitters in the synapse and tends to elevate mood.
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder and other mood disorders.
|Diazepam||Valium||Other-psychoactive benzodiazepine||Yes||Tablets, injection, suppository||Acute||Diazepam is a benzodiazepine. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety.
Diazepam is used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms or muscle spasms. Diazepam is sometimes used with other medications to treat seizures.
|Diclofenac||Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Zipsor, Zorvolex, Voltaren||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||No||Tablets, injection, gel, suppository||Acute||Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). This medicine works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain and inflammation.
Diclofenac is used to treat mild to moderate pain, or signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Cataflam brand of this medicine is also used to treat menstrual cramps.
Diclofenac oral powder (Cambia) is used to treat a migraine headache attack. Cambia will only treat a headache that has already begun. It will not prevent headaches or reduce the number of attacks.
|Dihydroergotamine Mesylate||Dihydergot, DHE 45, Migranal||Ergot Alkaloid-derivative||Yes||Injection, Nasal Spray||Acute||It is used to treat acute migraine headache with or without aura and cluster headaches.
Dihydroergotamine is an ergot derivative. It works by constricting blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine headaches.
|Diltiazem||Cardizem, Cartia XT, Dilacor XR, Dilt-CD, Dilt-XR, Diltia XT, Diltiazem Hydrochloride CD, Diltiazem, Diltzac, Flunarizine,Taztia XT, Tiazac, Cardizem Monovial, Matzim LA||Calcium channel blockers||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Diltiazem is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. These work by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.
Diltiazem is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain) and certain heart rhythm disorders.
|Divalproex sodium||Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakote Sprinkles||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Divalproex sodium affects chemicals in the body that may be involved in causing seizures.
Divalproex sodium is used to treat various types of seizure disorders. It is sometimes used together with other seizure medications. Divalproex sodium is also used to treat manic episodes related to bipolar disorder (manic depression) and to prevent migraine headaches.
|Domperidone||Molax, Motilium, Motinorm Costi, Nomit||Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)||Yes||Tablets, injection, suppository||Preventative||Anti-emetics help relieve the nausea associated with migraine attacks. Domperidone helps increase the transit of food through the stomach which helps facilitate its anti-nausea properties.|
|Dosulepin / Dothiepin||Prothiaden, Dothep, Thaden, Dopress||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||This is a tricyclic antidepressant. They are named after their chemical structure, which contains three rings of atoms. They are prescribed typically for antidepressant disorders. Today they have largely been replaced in clinical use by newer antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs).|
|Doxylamine||Restavit, Dozile||Anti-histamine||No||Tablets||Acute||Doxylamine is an antihistamine. It works by depressing the central nervous system to produce drowsiness.
It is used to treat occasional sleeplessness and reducing difficulty falling asleep.
|Doxylamine, Paracetamol, Codeine||Mersyndol||Anti-histamine||No||Tablets||Acute||Helps produce drowsiness with two active painkiller ingredients. See Codeine & Paracetamol.|
|Duloxetine||Cymbalta||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Duloxetine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). SNRIs block or delay the reuptake of the neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine, by the presynaptic nerves. This increases the levels of these two neurotransmitters in the synapse and tends to elevate mood.
SNRIs are used to treat depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder and other mood disorders.
|Eletriptan||Replax||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets||Acute||Eletriptan is a second-generation triptan drug intended for the treatment of migraine headaches. It is used as an abortive treatment to help block a migraine attack, which is already in progress.|
|Ergotamine tartrate||Cafergot, Ergomar, Migril||Ergot Alkaloid-derivative||Yes||Tablets, Suppositories||Acute||Ergotamine is an ergot derivative. It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine headaches. Some brands, like Cafergot, also contain caffeine.|
|Escitalopram||Lexapro||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by restoring the balance of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain, which helps to improve certain mood problems. It is used to treat depression or generalized anxiety disorder.|
|Eye Drops – Dry Eyes||Artificial Tears, Cyclosporine, Restasis||Immuno-suppressant||No/ Yes||Eye Drops||Preventative||Because dry eye symptoms are prevalent in people with migraines, doctors may prescribe artificial tears. Non-prescription eye drops contain preservatives, while prescription formulas like cyclosporine/Restasis do not. Both decrease inflammation that can cause dry eyes and can cause discomfort for people with migraine.|
|Eye Drops – Glaucoma||Timolol, Levobunolol||Beta-Blockers||Yes||Eye Drops||Acute / Preventative||Beta-blocker eye drops, used to treat glaucoma, have been shown in a series of patients to provide almost complete pain relief from acute migraine over years of use. The mechanism of action of the drops is believed to be the passage of the beta-blockers into the nasal cavity, which is then rapidly absorbed into the blood vessels.|
|Fludrocortisone||Florinef Acetate||Other-corticosteriod||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Fludrocortisone is a corticosteroid, which is a steroid hormone. It works by causing the kidneys to retain sodium and acting as a replacement for cortisone when the body does not produce enough.
It is used to treat adrenocortical insufficiency in Addison disease and for treating salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome.
|Flunarizine||Sibelium||Calcium channel blockers||Yes||Tablets,|
|Preventative||Flunarizine is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. These work by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.
Flunarizine reduces calcium entry into neurons making them less 'excitable'.
|Fluoxetine||Lovan, Prozac, Sarafem||Anti-depressant||Yes||Capsules||Preventative||Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressant. Fluoxetine affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression, panic, anxiety or obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Fluoxetine is used to treat major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa (an eating disorder) obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
Fluoxetine is sometimes used together with another medication called olanzapine (Zyprexa) to treat depression caused by bipolar disorder (manic depression). This combination is also used to treat depression after at least 2 other medications have been tried without successful treatment of symptoms.
|Fluvoxamine||Luvox||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Fluvoxamine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by restoring the balance of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain, which helps to decrease obsessive or compulsive behavior.
It is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
|Frovatriptan||Frova, Migard||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets||Acute||Frovatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist, also known as a ‘triptan’. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraines. It is used to treat acute migraine headache with or without aura in adults. It should not be used as a migraine preventative.|
|Gabapentin||Gralise, Horizant, Neurontin, Gabarone||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets,|
|Preventative||Gabapentin is an antiepileptic or anticonvulsant medication. It affects chemicals and nerves in the body that are involved in the cause of seizures and some types of pain.
Gabapentin is used in adults to treat nerve pain caused by herpes virus or shingles.
The Horizant brand is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
The Neurontin brand is also used to treat seizures in adults and children who are at least 3 years old.
|Greater Occipital Nerve Block||Steriod/ Lidocaine||Other-steriod & anaesthetic||Yes||Injection||Preventative||The occipital nerves are the two pairs of nerves that originate in the area of the second and third vertebrae of the neck. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is located just beneath the scalp in the back of the head over the occipital lobe of the brain. This region of the brain deals with vision including color recognition, spatial awareness and word recognition.
Most people who experience migraine and headache syndrome on a regular basis also have tenderness in the sub-occipital region of their skulls. The objective of a GON block is to block the pain messages sent to the brain along the GON.
In cases where migraine is resistant to medication or where treatment is hindered by adverse effects, a GON block may be explored.
|Hormone Replacement Therapy/Contraceptive pills||-||Other-hormones||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) refers to any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones, or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Hormone replacement therapy for menopause is based on the idea that the treatment may prevent discomfort caused by diminished circulating estrogen and progesterone hormones, or in the case of the surgically or prematurely menopausal, that it may prolong life and may reduce incidence of dementia. It involves the use of one or more of a group of medications designed to artificially boost hormone levels. The main types of hormones involved are estrogens, progesterone or progestins, and sometimes testosterone. It often referred to as "treatment" rather than therapy.
For pre-menopausal use, Contraceptive Pills containing hormones may be used to skip periods (and often, Menstrual Migraines) if your physician believes this will benefit the patient.
|Hydrocodone||Hysingla ER, Zohydro ER||Narcotic||Yes||Tablets, Suppository, Intranasal||Acute||Hydrocodone is an opioid pain medication. An opioid is also referred to as a narcotic.
Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER are extended-release forms of hydrocodone that are used for around-the-clock treatment of severe pain. Extended-release hydrocodone is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
|Hydromorphone||Dilaudid-HP, Jurnista||Narcotic||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Hydromorphone is an opioid (narcotic) analgesic. It works in the brain and nervous system to reduce pain.
It is used to treat moderate to severe pain in narcotic-tolerant patients who require larger than usual doses to provide adequate pain relief.
|Hydroxyzine||Atarax, Alamon, Aterax, Durrax, Equipose, Masmoran Vistaril, Vistaril IM, Hyzine, Vistaject-50, Rezine, Tran-Q, Orgatrax,|
|Anti-histamine||Yes||Tablets, Capsules Injection||Acute||Hydroxyzine reduces activity in the central nervous system. It also acts as an antihistamine that reduces the natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing and runny nose, or hives on the skin.
Hydroxyzine is used as a sedative to treat anxiety and tension. It is also used together with other medications given for anaesthesia. Hydroxyzine may also be used to control nausea and vomiting.
Hydroxyzine is also used to treat allergic skin reactions such as hives or contact dermatitis.
|Ibuprofen||Advil, Genpril, IBU, Midol, Motrin,||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)|
|No||Tablets, Suppository, Injection, Topical|
|Acute||Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
Ibuprofen is used to reduce fever and treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as headache, toothache, back pain, arthritis, menstrual cramps, or minor injury.
|Ibuprofen, Codeine||ProVen Plus, Rafen Plus, Panafen Plus, Nurofen Plus||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||No||Tablets||Acute||In this combination formula Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is combined with Codeine to reduce pain and inflammation. See Ibuprofen and Codeine for their separate descriptions.|
|Indomethacin||Indocin, Indocid||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||Yes||Capsules Suppository, Injection, Topical||Acute||It is used to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in certain premature infants.
Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is thought to work by blocking the action of a certain chemical in the body called prostaglandin.
|Irbesartan||Abisart, Avapro||Blood pressure||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by relaxing blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure. It is used to treat high blood pressure alone or with other medicines. It is also used in certain patients to treat kidney problems caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy).|
|Isometheptene mucate||Midrin, Duradrin||Other||No||Capsules||Acute||Isometheptene works by causing the blood vessels in the brain to narrow. By decreasing the width of blood vessels isometheptene helps relieve the pain from migraine headaches. It is often used in combination with active ingredients. The British National Formulary state that as more effective preparations are now available, this is not widely used.|
|Ketamine||Ketalar||Anesthetic||Yes||Injection, IV||Acute||Ketamine is an anesthetic. It works in the brain to inhibit painful sensations. Because it has powerful psychogenic side effects and can produce adverse reactions in some patients, it is frequently administered under careful supervision by an anesthesiologist.|
|Ketoprofen||Actron, Orudis, Oruvail||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||Yes||Capsules Injection, Topical||Acute||Ketoprofen is an NSAID. Exactly how it works is not known. It may block certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation. They do not treat the disease that causes those symptoms.
It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. It is also used to treat menstrual cramps and pain. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
|Acute||Ketorolac is an NSAID. Ketorolac is indicated for short-term management of moderate to severe pain. Concerns about the high incidence of reported side effects led to restriction in its dosage and maximum duration of use. In the UK, treatment should be initiated only in a hospital. Maximum duration of treatment should not exceed five days for tablets (per package insert), or two days for continuous daily dosing with intravenous or intramuscular formulations. May be used intravenously in hospital or emergency settings.
It is used in the short-term (up to 5 days) treatment of moderately severe pain (usually after surgery), alone or in combination with other medicines.
|Lamotrigine||Lamictal||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant. Exactly how it works is not known. It is used to treat certain types of seizures. It may be used alone or with other medicines. It may also be used to delay the occurrence of mood problems in certain patients with bipolar
|Levetiracetam||Keppra||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant. Exactly how it works is not known, but it may work by slowing abnormal nerve impulses in the brain.
It is used to treat partial-onset, myoclonic or seizures in patients with epilepsy. It may be used in combination with other medicines.
|Loratadine||Alavert, Alavert Allergy, Claritin, lear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Dimetapp ND, Loratadine Reditab, Tavist ND, Wal-itin||Anti-histamine||No||Tablets||Acute||Loratadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes and runny nose.
Loratadine is used to treat the symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, watery eyes and runny nose. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions.
|Marijuana/ Medicinal Cannabis||-||Other-||Yes||Tea, Edibles, Capsule Oils||Acute||The use of medical marijuana for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea, glaucoma, spasticity in multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain has been clinically demonstrated to some extent. The likelihood of undesirable adverse reactions limits its applications, and therapeutic use may be limited to either concomitant therapy or when conventional therapy has failed.|
|Mefenamic acid||Ponstan, Ponstel||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||No||Capsules||Acute||Mefenamic acid is an NSAID. Exactly how it works is not known. It may block certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.
It is used for menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.
|Meloxicam||Mobic, Movalis||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Meloxicam (Mobic) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
Meloxicam is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in adults and children who are at least 2 years old.
|Memantine||Abixa, Akatinol, Axura, Ebixa, Memox, Namenda||Other-central nervous system agent||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist. It works by blocking excess activity of a substance in the brain called glutamate, which may reduce the symptoms associated with Alzheimer disease. Memantine is not a cure for Alzheimer disease. It is used to help treat moderate to severe Alzheimer-type dementia.|
|Acute||Meperidine is a narcotic analgesic. It works in the brain and nervous system to decrease pain.
It is used as a short-term treatment of moderate to severe pain. It may also be used before or during surgery (e.g. to support anesthesia), for pain relief during labor and delivery, or for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
|Methocarbamol, Acetaminophen||Robaxin, Robaxacet||Muscle relaxant||No||Tablets,|
|Acute||Methocarbamol is a central muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle spasms.|
|Methyl Salicylate||Menthoderm, Thera-Gesic Plus, Salonpas Pain Patch||Other-topical rubefacient||No||Topical||Acute||Methyl salicylate/menthol cream is a topical analgesic. It works by temporarily relieving minor pain. Topical rubefacients cause irritation and reddening of the skin, due to increased blood flow. They are used in the treatment of pain in various musculoskeletal conditions and the temporary relief of minor aches and pains caused by arthritis, simple backache, strains, sprains and bruises.|
|Methysergide||Deseril, Sansert||Anti-serotonergic (Anti 5-HT)||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||The exact way that methysergide works is unknown. It is believed to be involved in narrowing the veins and arteries that supply blood to your head.
Serotonin (5-HT) is a chemical occurring in the body, which is thought to play a key role in migraine. These drugs block 5-HT2 receptors to stop the effects of 5-HT.
Methysergide is a semi synthetic ergot alkaloid. It should only be administered under hospital supervision because of the potential side effects (retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of heart values and pleura).
|Metoclopramide||Maxolon, Metozolv ODT, Pramin, Reglan||Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)||Yes||Tablets,|
|Acute||Metoclopramide increases muscle contractions in the upper digestive tract. This speeds up the rate at which the stomach empties into the intestines.
Metoclopramide is used short-term to treat heartburn caused by gastroesophageal reflux in people who have used other medications without relief of symptoms.
Metoclopramide is also used to treat slow gastric emptying in people with diabetes (also called diabetic gastro paresis) which can cause nausea, vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite and a feeling of fullness after meals.
|Metoclopramide, Paracetamol||Anagrain, Metomax, Paramax||Other-combination analgesic & anti-emetic (anti-nausea)||No||Tablets||Acute||The combination is used to treat the symptoms of migraine, both to relieve headache (the Paracetamol) and to treat associated nausea and vomiting (the anti-emetic). In addition to its direct anti-emetic effect metoclopramide also stimulates gastric emptying (prokinetic), which is often delayed during migraine attacks, and accelerates the absorption of paracetamol.|
|Metoprolol||Dutoprol, Betaloc, Lopressor||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Metoprolol is a beta-blocker that affects the heart and circulation.
Metoprolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.
|Mirtazapine||Remeron||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Mirtazapine is an antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression.
Mirtazapine is used to treat major depressive disorder.
|Acute||Mometasone cream is a topical corticosteroid (a steroid hormone). It works by reducing inflammatory reactions and modifying immune reactions in the body.
The topical format is used for treating and preventing allergic nasal symptoms including congestion, sneezing, itching and runny nose. It is also used for treatment of growths in the nose (nasal polyps).
Mometasone spray is a corticosteroid. It works by reducing inflammatory reactions in the nasal airway in response to allergens and irritants in the air. Treating itching, redness and swelling of many skin conditions.
|Morphine||AVINza, Kadian, MS Contin||Narcotic||Yes||Tablets, Injection, Suppository, Inhalation||Acute||Morphine is an opioid or narcotic pain medication. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Short-acting formulations are taken as needed for pain.
The extended-release form of this medicine is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. This form of morphine is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
|Moxonidine||Physiotens||Hypertension||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Monoxidine is a blood pressure treatment that works by relaxing the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. This means that your blood vessels widen, which reduces your blood pressure and allows blood and oxygen to circulate more freely around your body.|
|Nadolol||Corgard||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Nadolol is a beta-blocker. It works by slowing down the heart and decreasing the amount of blood it pumps out. This helps to decrease blood pressure, helps the heart pump more efficiently and reduces the workload on the heart.
It is used in the long-term management of angina (chest pain). It is also used alone or with other medicines to treat high blood pressure.
|Naproxen||Aleve, Anaprox, Anaprox-DS, EC-Naprosyn, Leader Naproxen Sodium, Midol Extended Relief, Naprelan 375, Naprosyn, Synflex||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)||No||Tablets||Acute||Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
Naproxen is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, gout or menstrual cramps.
It is the preferred NSAID for long-term use in people with a high risk of cardiovascular (for example, heart attacks or strokes) complications, due to its relatively low risk of causing such complications.
|Naratriptan||Amerge, Naramig||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets||Acute||Naratriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist. It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain. It is used to relieve certain types of migraine headaches.|
|Nimodipine||Nimotop||Calcium channel blockers||Yes||Capsules Injection||Preventative||Nimotop is a calcium channel-blocking agent. Exactly how Nimotop works is unknown. It is used to help reduce problems from a lack of oxygen caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain.|
|Nitrazepam||Alodorm, Arem, Insoma, Insomin, Mogadon, Nitrados, Nitrazadon, Nitrosun, Ormodon, Paxadorm, Remnos,|
|Hypnotic||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Nitrazepam is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class, indicated for the short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia. It also has sedative and motor-impairing properties, as well as amnestic, anticonvulsant and skeletal muscle relaxant effects.|
|Nortriptyline||Allegron, Pamelor||Anti-depressant||Yes||Capsule||Preventative||Nortriptyline belongs to a group of medicines called tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). It is used to treat depression and some other conditions. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.|
|Onabotulinumtoxin A||BOTOX||Muscle relaxant||Yes||Injection||Preventative||OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), also called botulinum toxin type A, is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles, causing a temporary reduction in muscle activity.
Botox can be used to prevent chronic migraine headaches in adults who have migraines for more than 15 days per month, each lasting 4 hours or longer. Botox should not be used to treat a common tension headache.
In the doctor’s office, multiple Botox injections are inserted into the muscles of the forehead and neck and treatment is repeated every 12 weeks if successful. However, there are maximum dose limits to be aware of when using Botox. Botox is also used for other conditions and cosmetic purposes such as to smooth wrinkles or for an overactive bladder.
|Ondansetron||Zofran, Zofran ODT, Zuplenz||Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)||Yes||Tablets,|
|Acute||Ondansetron blocks the actions of chemicals in the body that can trigger nausea and vomiting. It is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may be caused by surgery or by medicine to treat cancer (chemotherapy or radiation).
Ondansetron is not for preventing nausea or vomiting that is caused by factors other than cancer treatment or surgery.
|Oxycodone||Endone, Oxecta, OxyCONTIN,|
|Narcotic||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository||Acute||Oxycodone is an opioid/ narcotic pain medication. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain.|
|Oxygen||--||Inhalant / Device||Yes/ No||Cannula / Mask||Acute / Prevention||Decreased oxygen levels and restricted blood flow to the brain are two conditions often identified by medical researchers as factors in migraine attacks. It has been shown that oxygen causes a marked decrease in cerebral blood flow that is coincident with the reduced degree of pain in cluster headache.
There are two high-flow oxygen delivery methods for migraines:
• Normobaric (NBOT) – Oxygen delivered from a portable tank using a face mask or nasal cannula. It typically requires a prescription.
• Hyperbaric (HBOT) – Immersive, enclosed chamber where 100 percent oxygen flows – no mask or cannula. It does not require a prescription.
Hyperbaric wasn’t shown to be as effective for migraine as it was for cluster headache relief. Normobaric offered relief to 3/4 of the migraine patients to whom it was administered.
|Oxymetazoline nasal||Allerest, Afrin, Mucinex, Nostrilla, Sinex||Decongestant||No||Intranasal Spray||Acute||Relieving nasal congestion due to the common cold, hay fever, other upper respiratory tract allergies, or sinus infection. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Oxymetazoline solution is a decongestant. It works by shrinking swollen and congested nasal tissues (mucous membranes) by constricting blood vessels. This results in relief of congestion, improved drainage of mucus, and improved breathing through the nose. Local application using nose drops or sprays causes more intense and rapid vasoconstriction than oral medicines such as tablets or syrups.
|PFO Valve Closure||--||Procedure||Yes||--||Preventative||Multiple studies suggest that migraine with aura is more prevalent in subjects with patent foramen ovale (PFO), an open passage between the chambers of the heart.
Several studies suggest that PFO closure, a surgical procedure, may be an effective treatment for migraine. However, the grade of evidence from these studies is low.
|Pantoprazole||Protonix, Protonix IV, Somac||Proton pump inhibitors||Yes||Tablets,|
|Acute||Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach.
Pantoprazole is used to treat erosive esophagitis (damage to the esophagus from stomach acid), and other conditions involving excess stomach acid such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Pantoprazole is not for immediate relief of heartburn symptoms.
|Paracetamol, Codeine||Paracodol||Narcotic||Yes||Tablets||Acute||This treatment contains the active ingredients paracetamol and codeine phosphate. It is used for the relief of moderate to
severe pain when milder painkillers are not effective. Paracetamol belongs to a group of medicines called analgesics (painkillers). Analgesics are used to block pain. It is also an antipyretic, which means that it helps reduce your body temperature if you have a fever.
Codeine phosphate also belongs to the group of medicines called analgesics and it acts by blocking pain and your emotional response to pain. See Codeine for more detail.
|Paracetamol, Ibuprofen||Maxigesic||Combination-Analegsic & NSAID||No||Tablets||Acute||For the temporary relief of mild to moderate pain associated with migraine, headache, backache, period pain, dental pain, rheumatic and muscular pain, pain of non-serious arthritis, cold and flu symptoms, sore throat and fever. This combination is especially suitable for pain, which requires stronger analgesia than ibuprofen or paracetamol alone.|
|Phenylephrine hydrochloride, Ibuprofen||Sudafed PE||Combination-Decongestant & NSAID||No||Tablets||Acute||Contains ibuprofen and phenylephrine hydrochloride, which are effective in relieving the symptoms of influenza and cold, including fever, headache, painful sinuses, sore throat and muscle and joint pain. Moreover, it helps relieve a runny or stuffy nose and nasal sinuses.
Ibuprofen belongs to a group of medicines known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and is effective against aches and pains (including headache), swelling and can also reduce a fever.
Phenylephrine hydrochloride (nasal decongestant) reduces swelling in the passages of the nose, relieving nasal congestion and reducing the pressure, which may cause a headache.
|Phenylephrine hydrochloride, Paracetamol||Dimetapp PE Sinus Pain, Lemsip Cold & Flu, Panadol Cold & Flu, Sudafed||Combination-Decongestant & Analgesic||No||Tablets||Acute||Contains a decongestant & analgesic (Paracetamol), which can help ease symptoms such as blocked or runny nose, sore throat and body aches and headaches.|
|Pizotifen||Sandomigran||Anti-serotonergic (Anti 5-HT)||Yes||Tablets||Acute||Serotonin (5-HT) is a chemical occurring in the body, which is thought to play a key role in migraine. These drugs block 5-HT2 receptors to inhibit the effects of 5-HT. Pizotifen also has anti-histamine properties and is related to the tricyclic antidepressants.|
|Prednisone||Rayos, Sterapred||Steriod||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository, Nasal||Acute||Prednisone is a corticosteroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also suppresses the immune system.
Prednisone is used as an anti-inflammatory or an immunosuppressant medication. Prednisone treats many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, lupus, psoriasis or breathing disorders.
|Pregabalin||Lyrica||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Capsules||Preventative||Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant and neuropathic pain agent. Exactly how pregabalin works is not known. It is thought to bind to certain areas in the brain that help reduce seizures, nerve pain and anxiety.
It is used to treat fibromyalgia or nerve pain caused by certain conditions (e.g. shingles, diabetic nerve problems, spinal cord injury). It is also used in combination with other medicines to treat certain types of seizures.
|Prochlorperazine||Compazine, Stemzine, Buccastem, Stemetil, Phenotil||Anti-emetic (anti-nausea) & Anti-psychotic||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository||Acute||Prochlorperazine is a phenothiazine. It is not known exactly how it works. It is a highly potent typical antipsychotic, 10–20× more potent than chlorpromazine. It is used to help control severe nausea and vomiting and treating schizophrenia. It is also used to treat migraine headaches. Intravenous administration can be used to treat status migrainosus.|
|Promethazine||Phenergan, Promethegan, Romergan, Fargan, Farganesse, Fenazin, Prothiazine, Avomine, Atosil, Receptozine, Lergigan,|
|Anti-histamine & Anti-emetic (anti-nausea)||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository||Acute||Promethazine works by changing the actions of chemicals in your brain. Promethazine also acts as an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the naturally occurring chemical histamine in your body.
Promethazine is used to treat allergy symptoms such as itching, runny nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, hives and itchy skin rashes. It also prevents motion sickness, and treats nausea and vomiting or pain after surgery. It is also used as a sedative or sleep aid.
|Propranolol||Hemangeol, Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL, Inderal||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository||Preventative||Propranolol is a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers affect the heart and blood circulation.
Propranolol is used to treat tremors, angina (chest pain), hypertension (high blood pressure), heart rhythm disorders and other heart or circulatory conditions. It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack and to reduce the severity and frequency of migraine headaches.
|Pseudoephedrine||Contac Cold, Drixoral Decongestant Non-Drowsy, Elixsure Decongestant, Entex, Genaphed, Kid Kare Drops, Nasofed, Seudotabs, Silfedrine, Sudafed, Sudodrin, SudoGest, Suphedrin, Triaminic Softchews Allergy Congestion, Unifed||Descongestant||No||Tablets,|
|Acute||Pseudoephedrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal congestion or stuffy nose.
Pseudoephedrine is used to treat nasal and sinus congestion, or congestion of the tubes that drain fluid from your inner ears, called the eustachian tubes.
|Quetiapine||Seroquel||Anti-psychotic||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic. Exactly how it works is not known. It is thought to affect certain substances in the brain. It is used to treat schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.|
|Rizatriptan||Maxalt||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets, Sub-lingual||Acute||Rizatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist or "triptan". It works by narrowing dilated blood vessels in the brain, relieving migraine headaches. It is used to treat migraine headaches with or without aura. It should not be used to prevent migraines or to treat cluster headaches.|
|Sertraline||Zoloft||Anti-depressant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Sertraline is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Sertraline affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression, panic, anxiety or obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Sertraline is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
|Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) Device||Sphenocath, Allevio, and Tx360||Neuromod-ulation||Yes||Device||Preventative||The Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) is a group of nerve cells that is linked to the trigeminal nerve, the main nerve involved in headache.
Application of local anesthetics (or numbing medications) to block or partially block the SPG, this can be helpful in reducing head and facial pain.
Three devices have been approved for performing SPG blocks.
A doctor inserts a very thin plastic tube into the nose to insert numbing medication in and around the SPG.
|Sodium Valproate||Epilim||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets, Capsules Injection||Preventative||Valproate is an anticonvulsant. It works by increasing a certain chemical in the brain. It is used to control certain types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy in patients who are unable to take the oral form of valproate.|
|Sumatriptan||Imigran, Imitrex, Treximet, Zembrace Symtouch,|
Onzetra XSail, Sumavel DosePro,
|Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets, Injection, Needle-less Injection, Nasal Spray||Acute||Sumatriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist ("triptan"). It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraine and cluster headaches.
Sumatriptan is used to treat migraine headaches with or without aura. It is one of the most common treatments with numerous high quality studies demonstrating it’s scientific efficacy for the treatment of acute migraine. It is also used to treat cluster headaches.
The Treximet brand is a combination of Sumatriptan and Naproxyn Sodium, both of which are available as generics.
|Timolol||Blocadren, Betimol, Betrim, Istalol, Timoptic||Beta-blocker||Yes||Tablets, Eye Drops||Preventative||Timolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation. It is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Timolol drops are used to treat increased pressure in the eye (ocular hypertension) and open-angle glaucoma. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Timolol drops are a beta-blocker. It works to decrease fluid production and pressure inside the eye.
(See Eye Drops).
|Tizanidine||Zanaflex||Muscle relaxant||Yes||Tablets, Injection Intranasal||Acute||Tizanidine is a short-acting muscle relaxer. It works by blocking nerve impulses or pain sensations that are sent to your brain.
Tizanidine is used to treat spasticity by temporarily relaxing muscle tone.
|Topiramate||Topamax||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Tablets||Preventative||Topiramate is an anticonvulsant that is also helpful to prevent migraine headaches. It works by affecting several chemicals in the brain that help to reduce seizure activity and prevent migraine headaches from occurring.
It is used to treat seizures in certain patients. It may be used alone or with other medicines.
|Tramadol||ConZip, Rybix ODT, Ryzolt, Ultram||Narcotic-like painkiller||Yes||Tablets, Injection, suppository||Acute||Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever. Tramadol is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Tramadol is a centrally acting, oral narcotic-like analgesic and is approved for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain in adults. The extended-release form of tramadol is for around-the-clock treatment of
pain and not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
|Tramadol, Paracetamol/ Acetaminophen||Tramacet, Ultracet||Narcotic-like & Analgesic (painkiller)||Yes||Tablets,|
|Acute||This formulation combines individual ingredients for a stronger effect. See individual active ingredients for mode of action.|
|Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) device||SpringTMS||Neuromod-ulation||Yes||Device||Acute||TMS uses magnets to emit just a single pulse of electricity. This pulse has been shown to treat cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is the physical change in the brain during aura and migraine.
Research shows that daily use of TMS for 3 months or longer can lead to a reduction in acute medication use.
eNeura’s SpringTMS is a TMS device available via prescription.
|Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) device||Cefaly||Neuromod-ulation||Yes||Device||Preventative||TMS uses magnets to emit just a single pulse of electricity. This pulse has been shown to treat cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is the physical change in the brain during aura and migraine.
Research shows that daily use of TMS for 3 months or longer can lead to a reduction in acute medication use.
eNeura’s SpringTMS is a TMS device available via prescription.
|Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) device||Gammacore||Neuromod-ulation||Yes||Device||Acute||The vagus nerve runs from the brainstem through the chest and abdomen on each side of the body. Vagus nerve stimulation appears to inhibit cortical spreading depression as well as calm the brain’s excitability.
It stimulates the production of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, serotonin and norepinephrine, which affect migraine and cluster headaches. GammaCore, is a handheld VNS device that stimulates the nerves non-invasively when placed above the vagus nerve in the neck.
|Preventative||Venlafaxine is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs). Venlafaxine affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression.
Venlafaxine is used to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety and panic disorder.
|Verapamil||Isoptin, Calan||Calcium channel blockers||Yes||Tablets,|
|Preventative||Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.
Verapamil is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain) and certain heart rhythm disorders.
|Zolmitriptan||Zomig||Serotonin (5-HT1) agonists or|
|Yes||Tablets, Nasal Spray||Acute||Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist or "triptan". It works by narrowing blood vessels in the brain, which helps to relieve migraines. It is used to treat migraine headaches with or without aura in adults. It is not intended to prevent migraines.|
|Zolpidem||Ambien, Edluar, Intermezzo, Stilnox, Zonadin, Sanval, Zolpimist Hypnogen||Hypnotic||Yes||Tablets, Suppos-itory||Acute||Zolpidem is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. It affects chemicals in your brain that may become unbalanced and cause sleep problems or insomnia.
Zolpidem is used to treat insomnia. The immediate-release forms of zolpidem are Ambien, Intermezzo, Edluar and Zolpimist, which are used to help you fall asleep. The extended-release form of zolpidem is Ambien CR, which has a first layer that dissolves quickly to help you fall asleep, and a second layer that dissolves slowly to help you stay asleep.
Ambien, Edluar, and Zolpimist are used to help you fall asleep when you first go to bed. Intermezzo, is used to help you fall back to sleep if you wake up in the middle of the night and then have trouble sleeping.
|Zonisamide||Zonegran||Anti-convulsant||Yes||Capsules||Preventative||Zonisamide is often used in combination with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Zonisamide is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain.|